Modern decorticating techniques employ steam explosion (treating the fibers with steam through a pressurized chamber) and ultrasonic breaking (breaking down fibers using ultrasonic waves) to maintain the integrity of the fibers throughout the process. These techniques are not as harsh on the stalks and allow processors to use the fibers on cotton and wool processing machinery.
For a fiber crop, hemp is cut in the early flowering stage or while pollen is being shed, well before seeds are set. Tall European cultivars (greater than 2 m) have mostly been grown in Canada to date, and most of these are photoperiodically adapted to mature late in the season (often too late). Small crops have been harvested with sickle-bar mowers and hay swathers, but plugging of equipment is a constant problem. Hemp fibers tend to wrap around combine belts, bearings, indeed any moving part, and have resulted in large costs of combine repairs (estimated at $10.00/ha). Slower operation of conventional combines has been recommended (0.6–2 ha/hour). Large crops may require European specialized equipment, but experience in North America with crops grown mainly for fiber is limited. The Dutch company HempFlax has developed or adapted several kinds of specialized harvesting equipment (Fig. 44, 45).
As a physical therapist I have access to many modalities for pain. Specifically back pain that is not a radicular pain ( think disc problems) but sore muscle sprain/strain is common. Of all the modalities I have used, CBD transdermal is one of the most effective treatments. Pain just melts away in a matter of minutes without any smell or sensation.
“Industrial hemp, along with all strains of cannabis, are decades behind other agricultural crops in terms of improved plant genetics,” said Arcadia Chief Financial Officer Matt Plavan. “With the explosive market growth projected in the industrial hemp and derivative markets, growers will need the very best hemp strains to meet demand, minimize waste, and ensure consistent quality.”
Hemp seeds contain virtually no THC, but THC contamination results from contact of the seeds with the resin secreted by the epidermal glands on the leaves and floral parts, and also by the failure to sift away all of the bracts (which have the highest concentration of THC of any parts of the plant) that cover the seeds. This results in small levels of THC appearing in hempseed oil and foods made with the seeds. Although most of the western hemp-growing world uses 0.3% THC as a maximum concentration for authorized cultivation of hemp plants, regulations in various countries allow only a much lower level of THC in human food products manufactured from the seeds. Currently, up to 10 ppm THC is permitted in seeds and oil products used for food purposes in Canada. In Germany, more stringent limits were set for food in 2000: 5 ppm in food oil, 0.005 ppm in beverages, and 0.15 ppm in all other foods. The US Drug Enforcement Administration published new regulations on hemp in the Federal Register on October 9th 2001 that in effect 4 months later would ban the food use of hemp in the US because any amount of THC would be unacceptable in foods (follow links at www.hempreport.com/). These proposals are currently being challenged by the hemp industry. Limits have been set because of concerns about possible toxicity and interference with drug tests (Grotenhermen et al. 1998). An extensive analysis of literature dealing with the toxicity of hemp is in Orr and Starodub (1999; see Geiwitz 2001 for an analysis). Because hemp food products are considered to have great economic potential, there is considerable pressure on the hemp industry in North America to reduce THC levels.
Zammit and colleagues’ findings were supported in a 3-year longitudinal study of the relationship between self-reported cannabis use and psychosis in a community sample of 4848 people in the Netherlands (van Os et al., 2002). Van Os and colleagues reported that cannabis use at baseline predicted an increased risk of psychotic symptoms during the follow-up period in individuals who had not reported psychiatric symptoms at baseline. There was a dose–response relationship between frequency of cannabis use at baseline and risk of psychotic symptoms during the follow-up period. These relationships persisted when they statistically controlled for the effects of other drug use. The relationship between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms was also stronger for cases with more severe psychotic symptoms.
Short-term use of the drug impairs thinking and coordination. In long-term studies, teens who smoke marijuana have lower IQs later on, as well as structural differences in their brains, though scientists debate whether this is an effect of the drug or a result of habitual pot smokers seeking out less intellectually stimulating pursuits. A 2016 study on almost 300 students by the University of Montreal published in the journal Development and Psychopathology found that teens who start smoking around age 14 do worse on some cognitive tests by age 20 than non-smokers. They also have a higher school dropout rate. If they wait until age 17 to start, though, the smokers do not seem to have the same impairments, according to the study.
Cannabis use is associated with increased recruitment of task-related areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is thought to reflect compensatory activity due to reduced processing efficiency. Cannabis use is also associated with downregulation of CB1 receptors. The magnitude of down regulation is associated with cumulative cannabis exposure, and is reversed after one month of abstinence. There is limited evidence that chronic cannabis use can reduce levels of glutamate metabolites in the human brain.
In the 1990s, European firms introduced lines of hemp oil-based personal care products, including soaps, shampoos, bubble baths, and perfumes. Hemp oil is now marketed throughout the world in a range of body care products, including creams, lotions, moisturizers, and lip balms. In Germany, a laundry detergent manufactured entirely from hemp oil has been marketed. Hemp-based cosmetics and personal care products account for about half of the world market for hemp oil (de Guzman 2001).
But, uh, what is it that CBD is supposed to do? I visited a cannabis dispensary in Boulder to find out what the hype was all about. After passing an ID check, I was introduced to a “budtender” who pointed me to an impressive array of CBD products — tinctures, skin patches, drink powders, candies, salves, massage oil, lotions, “sexy time personal intimacy oil” and even vaginal suppositories to treat menstrual cramps.
The theoretical logic is there, Gerdeman says. What exactly is that thinking? Well, there are a few different ways CBD could help regulate pain—by increasing your natural endocannabinoids, decreasing your inflammatory response, and desensitizing your pain receptors (although it’s still unclear whether this stands when absorbed topically compared to orally).
I was very skeptical about this product, was on a trip to San Antonio where I was shopping. The manager was telling me and my sister in law about this cream. I was thinking another gimmick. But from the moment I tried it, my hands didn’t hurt, no numbness, I was great for about 12 hours. You can ask my family anything related to a marijuana plant, I am against. I don’t advocate any type of drug. but this product is 100% THC free. You can pass a drug test. I apply it in the morning and can type all day, help pt’s . I apply it before bed to my hands , wrist, lower back and I do not hurt. I sleep all night. tremendous thanks to the lady that introduced me to this product. LOVE LOVE LOVE this product
PTSD. My husband suffers chronic PTSD from active military service. We live not far from a large Army base and though my husband served with another counties military we hear stories constantly of family breakdowns over PTSD. It’s not a easy path but I’m hoping one day to find something to stop the endless trips to the psych ward. It’s just not right that those who serve come home to no government help.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid. In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone. Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC, which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking). The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.
I have Serious skin problems around 6 years , saw lot of doctors and the Steroid treatment. Because wont feel better so I stopped to see doctor around 1 year... still cant sleep well because my skin hurts.. I want to try something nature. My skin problems let me Psychological problems， Let me unhappy. So I Get some Anxiety disorders and depression... I just try this cream and CBD oil one week, then my skin doesnt swollen, no cracked, and no bleeding anymore. I do not feel pain, because pain relief then I can sleep better. Really really thanks! So happy!
There are also other difficulties in researching the effects of cannabis. Many people who smoke cannabis also smoke tobacco. This causes confounding factors, where questions arise as to whether the tobacco, the cannabis, or both that have caused a cancer. Another difficulty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not say how much cannabis they actually smoke.
CBD Oil refers to CBD-infused products that contain CBD suspended in an oily base, such as vegetable glycerin, hemp seed oil, or another plant-derived oil. Sublingual oils are ideal because they allow for rapid absorption of CBD through the membrane under your tongue directly into your bloodstream. CBD Oils are available in both low and high doses, and droppers built into the cap make it easy to measure your proper dose. CBD Oils are the most popular kind of CBD product thanks to their ease of use and rapid effects.
A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles. The choice of which bast fiber to use is primarily based on cost and availability. Various car makers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including Audi, BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Iveco, Lotus, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Saturn, Volkswagen and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter).
Cannabis plants can be male, female, or hermaphrodite. The dried marijuana flowers that humans consume, however, come from the female plant. That’s because female plants produce large resin-secreting flowers that are rich in cannabinoids and free of seeds. Hence, female plants are the ones growers prefer, though of course, male marijuana plants are a requirement for pollination.
Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. It was used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars. Smoking pipes uncovered in Ethiopia and carbon-dated to around c. AD 1320 were found to have traces of cannabis.
In the 1970s, President Nixon declared a “War on Drugs” and signed into law the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. This law established a set of banned drugs and created the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). It also unintentionally outlawed one of the world’s oldest domesticated crop, hemp. This not only led to the demise of hemp, but also an increased misconception of the plant.
Despite being chemical cousins, THC and CBD have very different effects. The primary difference is that THC get you high while CBD does not. This is because THC and CBD affect our endocannabinoid system (ECS) in different ways. The major ECS receptor in the brain, CB1, is activated by THC but not CBD. In fact, CBD can get in the way of compounds like THC, preventing them from activating the CB1 receptor. This is why the THC:CBD ratio is so important for influencing the effects of cannabis products.
“Geotextiles” or “agricultural textiles” include (1) ground-retaining, biodegradable matting designed to prevent soil erosion, especially to stabilize new plantings while they develop root systems along steep highway banks to prevent soil slippage (Fig. 32); and (2) ground-covers designed to reduce weeds in planting beds (in the manner of plastic mulch). At present the main materials used are polymeric (polythene, spun-blown polypropylene) and some glass fiber and natural fibers. Both woven and non-woven fibers can be applied to geotextiles; woven and knitted materials are stronger and the open structure may be advantageous (e.g. in allowing plants to grow through), but non-wovens are cheaper and better at suppressing weeds. Flax and hemp fibers exposed to water and soil have been claimed to disintegrate rapidly over the course of a few months, which would make them unacceptable for products that need to have long-term stability when exposed to water and oil. Coco (coir) fiber has been said to be much more suitable, due to higher lignin content (40%–50%, compared to 2%–5% in bast fibers); these are much cheaper than flax and hemp fibers (Karus et al. 2000). However, this analysis does not do justice to the developing hemp geotextile market. Production of hemp erosion control mats is continuing in both Europe and Canada. Given the reputation for rot resistance of hemp canvas and rope, it seems probable that ground matting is a legitimate use. Moreover, the ability to last outdoors for many years is frequently undesirable in geotextiles. For example, the widespread current use of plastic netting to reinforce grass sod is quite objectionable, the plastic persisting for many years and interfering with lawn care. Related to geotextile applications is the possibility of using hemp fiber as a planting substrate (biodegradable pots and blocks for plants), and as biodegradable twine to replace plastic ties used to attach plants to supporting poles. Still another consideration is the “green ideal” of producing locally for local needs; by this credo, hemp is preferable in temperate regions to the use of tropical fibers, which need to be imported.
There’s a lot more you can do with it than just smoking it in a spliff. A gram of cannabis can actually get you some really great medications in other forms. This is especially helpful for consumers on a budget, because every gram counts! Here are some things you can do with your extra grams lying around. For extra potency, make sure to use the strongest cannabis strains you can find. Read up on our guide to decarboxylation here.
Lawmakers are starting to notice the economic impact that hemp could have in our communities. Just looking at our import volume, it is easy to point out the economic opportunity we are missing out on. Ever since hemp import was legalized in 1998, our import volume has been continuously increasing to an estimated $600 million in 2014. This clearly shows that the consumer market is available in the US. We just need to allow our farmers to grow the crop.
Over the ages, countless innovations have attempted to improve on the basic experience of inhaling the smoke of combusted cannabis. As a result, there are numerous ways to smoke marijuana. The rolling technique is at the root of joints, blunts, and spliffs. On the other hand, glassware and other devices are essential for smoking weed out of a pipe, bong, or bubbler.
To decide between these hypotheses, we need evidence that cannabis use preceded the psychosis; that plausible alternative explanations based on confounding can be excluded (Hall, 1987). The best evidence for answering these questions comes from longitudinal population-based studies that have assessed cannabis use before the onset of psychotic symptoms, followed the cohort over a substantial period and used statistical methods to assess the contribution of a variety of factors other than cannabis use that may explain the relationship (Macleod et al., 2004).
Seizures occur when there is abnormal activity in the brain, which causes the body to shut down and often go into a state of convulsion. Depending on the disorder, seizures can occur as rarely as once per month or as often as multiple times in a single day. It is absolutely devastating to live with seizures, and prolonged seizures can even lead to brain damage. CBD treatment for seizures is actually one of the leading topics in the medical community today, with tons of research being done to determine the effectiveness of CBD in treating seizures. In 2015, a study by the American Epilepsy Society confirmed that CBD was effective in reducing both the frequency and severity of seizures, with a median reduction rate of 45.1%. This is great news for not only people suffering from seizures but dogs as well! In fact, using CBD oil for dog seizures is one of CBD’s most common usages for pets.
CBD is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic effect. This likely means the high concentrations of CBD found in Cannabis indica mitigate the anxiogenic effect of THC significantly. The cannabis industry claims that sativa strains provide a more stimulating psychoactive high while indica strains are more sedating with a body high. However this is disputed by researchers.
"Skunk" refers to several named strains of potent cannabis, grown through selective breeding and sometimes hydroponics. It is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. indica (although other strains of this mix exist in abundance). Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%. The average THC level in coffee shops in the Netherlands is about 18–19%.
I work at Earthbound Trading Company, therefore discovering the CBD line. By far, one of my favorite products in our store! I had a nurse come in with chronic back pain and fibromyalgia. I recommended the CBD intensive cream. At a later date, she returned to the store to let me know that we sold her a miracle in a jar. She said that for the first time in years she was the most relaxed at work that she has ever been since she started nursing. She applied it while at work and said that she was pain free for 10 out of her 12 hour shift! I, myself, have been having some sharp, shooting back pain the last two weeks. The intensive cream has worked wonders! I applied it at one in the afternoon, and I was pain free for 12 hours! Plus, you can literally feel it working. Such an amazing product. You definitely can’t find that kind of pain relief over the counter or in your local pharmacy.
Scientific and clinical studies indicate that CBD could be effective in easing symptoms of a wide range of difficult-to-control conditions, including: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, PTSD, epilepsy, antibiotic-resistant infections and neurological disorders. CBD has demonstrated neuroprotective effects, and its anti-cancer potential is currently being explored at several academic research centers in the U.S. and other countries.
Cannabinoids are a class of compounds that interact with receptors throughout your body. CBD is just one of dozens of cannabinoids found in cannabis, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the one responsible for marijuana’s famous high. Medical cannabis is technically any cannabis product used for medicinal purposes, and these can contain THC or CBD or both, said Nick Jikomes, a neuroscientist at Leafly, a website that provides information about legal cannabis. “A common mistake people make is to think that CBD is ‘the medical cannabinoid’ and THC is ‘the recreational cannabinoid.’” That’s inaccurate, he said, because THC is a potent anti-inflammatory and can be helpful for pain.
While the science behind CBD oil assuaged many of my concerns, Charlotte Figi's inspiring story was the kicker. Figi, a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with a rare and resistant form of epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome, was actually placed on hospice care and given a "do not resuscitate" order when her parents, desperate and frustrated with pharmaceutical medication, considered medical marijuana. Charlotte is now 99% seizure-free since she began supplementing with Charlotte Web's CBD oil, which the brand named after Figi.
Though clinical and anecdotal evidence suggests CBD’s benefits in managing different conditions, it became most famous for treating a rare and debilitating form of pediatric epilepsy. Dravet’s Syndrome is notoriously resistant to current approved treatment methods. Sufferers are plagued by seizures, often up to hundreds a day, that worsen as they age and can be life-threatening. Currently, treatment methods include having the child wear an eyepatch, specialized diets, and brain surgery, but all have mixed success rates.
Several of the cannabinoids are reputed to have medicinal potential: THC for glaucoma, spasticity from spinal injury or multiple sclerosis, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and asthma; CBD for some psychological problems. The Netherlands firm HortaPharm developed strains of Cannabis rich in particular cannabinoids. The British firm G.W. Pharmaceuticals acquired proprietary access to these for medicinal purposes, and is developing medicinal marijuana. In the US, NIH (National Institute of Health) has a program of research into medicinal marijuana, and has supplied a handful of individuals for years with maintenance samples for medical usage. The American Drug Enforcement Administration is hostile to the medicinal use of Cannabis, and for decades research on medicinal properties of Cannabis in the US has been in an extremely inhospitable climate, except for projects and researchers concerned with curbing drug abuse. Synthetic preparations of THC—dronabinol (Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®)—are permitted in some cases, but are expensive and widely considered to be less effective than simply smoking preparations of marijuana. Relatively little material needs to be cultivated for medicinal purposes (Small 1971), although security considerations considerably inflate costs. The potential as a “new crop” for medicinal cannabinoid uses is therefore limited. However, the added-value potential in the form of proprietary drug derivatives and drug-delivery systems is huge. The medicinal efficacy of Cannabis is extremely controversial, and regrettably is often confounded with the issue of balancing harm and liberty concerning the proscriptions against recreational use of marijuana. This paper is principally concerned with the industrial uses of Cannabis. In this context, the chief significance of medicinal Cannabis is that, like the issue of recreational use, it has made it very difficult to rationally consider the development of industrial hemp in North America for purposes that everyone should agree are not harmful.
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THC, an intoxicating and illegal substance, is responsible for causing marijuana users to get “high.” Unlike THC, CBD is non-psychoactive because it does not act on the same pathways as THC. Thus, it is impossible to get “high” by smoking or ingesting CBD or CBD oil extracted from industrial hemp plants, as they only have minuscule traces of THC (<0.3%).
There is a general inverse relationship in the resin of Cannabis between the amounts of THC present and the amount of the other principal cannabinoid, CBD. Whereas most drug strains contain primarily THC and little or no CBD, fiber and oilseed strains primarily contain CBD and very little THC. CBD can be converted to THC by acid catalyzed cyclization, and so could serve as a starting material for manufacturing THC. In theory, therefore, low-THC cultivars do not completely solve the problem of drug abuse potential. In practice, however, the illicit drug trade has access to easier methods of synthesizing THC or its analogues than by first extracting CBD from non-drug hemp strains.
It depends on your pet and the medicine being used. There have been many examples of dogs being more receptive to PurCBD than traditional medications, especially with anti-seizure, anti-inflammatory, and anti-anxiety medications. Always check with your veterinarian before starting, stopping, or adjusting the dosage of any prescription medication. Many drugs, especially anti-seizure medications, must be weaned off slowly or else deadly withdrawal symptoms can occur.