In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibers.[148] Speculation about the potential for commercial cultivation of hemp in large quantities has been criticized due to successful competition from other fibers for many products. The world production of hemp fiber fell from over 300,000 metric tons 1961 to about 75,000 metric tons in the early 1990s and has after that been stable at that level.[149]
For dogs suffering from rashes, skin allergies, arthritis, or other general forms of muscle aches/joint pains (due to old age or otherwise), CBD topicals (salves and creams) are a popular and convenient way to go — they’re reliable, convenient, efficient for acute pain, and for the most part, are super easy to administer (have you ever know a dog that doesn’t love a good rub-down?).
After seasonal harvests of specific cultivars, these high-CBD hemp crops are put through a specialized solvent-free extraction process to yield a hemp oil that is naturally high in cannabidiol. This pure hemp extract is then tested for safety, quality, and cannabinoid content before being exported to our processing facilities in the United States. Importing any cannabis or hemp product into the United States is a complicated and serious task, so we leave nothing to chance before our high-CBD hemp oil makes its journey across the Atlantic Ocean.
There’s no definite amount that’s appropriate for everyone, but the ratio of CBD to THC will indicate how psychoactive the product is and if it’s legal in your state. The more CBD compared with THC, the less of a high, and vice versa. “Managing psychoactivity is key to successful cannabis therapy,” says Lee. “Amounts should be made clear on the label and lab-certified so people know what’s helping them and what’s not.”
In September 2005, New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.[81] The New Scientist story, which was picked up by many news agencies and web sites, indicated that the research was to be published in the journal Forensic Science International.[82]
Another concern is about medications with which CBD might interact. This won’t be an issue with most drugs, says Sunil Kumar Aggarwal, M.D., Ph.D., a palliative medicine physician and scientist who studies cannabis and integrates it into his Seattle medical practice. The exceptions are blood thinners, IV antibiotics, and other drugs whose exact dosing is crucial and must be monitored closely, he says. (Of course, if you have a health problem, talk to your doctor before using CBD, and never take it instead of seeing your physician for a serious condition.)
For many, the medical and therapeutic potential of cannabis is what makes legalizing the marijuana plant such an important political and social task. Federal prohibition has established barriers to comprehensive cannabis research in the United States. However, researchers in other countries continue to make significant contributions to our knowledge of the cannabis plant and how it affects the human body.
This non-greasy formula is a lightweight counterpart to all those heavy hemp salves and balms that you tend to see on the market, so much so that you could use this every day on your entire body without worries about staining your clothes. Along with the Colorado-grown CBD oil, it has a lotion base made with aloe vera leaf juice powder (good for antioxidants), lactic acid (good for exfoliation), and other reputable skincare ingredients. Keep this by your shower and use it while your skin is still moist, warm, and soft for the best results.
Via CB1 receptor activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects.[146] Cannabidiol (CBD) also acts as an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors.[147] THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors.[148] It is unknown if or how these actions contribute to the effects of cannabis.[149]
The most appropriate delivery system for CBD-rich cannabis is one that provides an optimal dose for a desired duration with as few unwanted side effects as possible. Medical cannabis products with CBD and low- or zero-levels of THC have very few noticeable side effects in pets – the most severe might be drowsiness. In addition, cannabis toxicity as a result of pet consumption of cannabis edibles is nonfatal and causes no known long-term side effects.
Full List of Ingredients Water, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Cetyl Alcohol, Cetearyl Glucoside, Cetearyl Alcohol  Glycerin, Sclerocarya Birrea (Marula) Kernel Oil, Tetradecane, Menthol, Hemp Seed Oil, Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil, Carthamus Tinctorious (Safflower) Seed Oil, Xanthan Gum, Cannabidiol (CBD) Rich Hemp Oil, Stearic Acid, Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil
In December 2012, the U.S. state of Washington became the first state to officially legalize cannabis in a state law (Washington Initiative 502) (but still illegal by federal law),[227] with the state of Colorado following close behind (Colorado Amendment 64).[228] On January 1, 2013, the first marijuana "club" for private marijuana smoking (no buying or selling, however) was allowed for the first time in Colorado.[229] The California Supreme Court decided in May 2013 that local governments can ban medical marijuana dispensaries despite a state law in California that permits the use of cannabis for medical purposes. At least 180 cities across California have enacted bans in recent years.[230]
The most pressing need of the hemp industry in North America is for the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars. At present, mainly European cultivars are available, of which very few are suitable for specialized oilseed production. More importantly, hempseed oil is not competitive, except in the novelty niche market, with the popular food oils. As argued above, to be competitive, hemp should produce approximately 2 t/ha; at present 1 t/ha is considered average to good production. Doubling the productive capacity of a conventional crop would normally be considered impossible, but it needs to be understood just how little hemp has been developed as an oilseed. There may not even be extant land races of the kind of hemp oilseed strains that were once grown in Russia, so that except for a very few very recent oilseed cultivars, there has been virtually no breeding of oilseed hemp. Contrarily, hemp has been selected for fiber to the point that some breeders consider its productivity in this respect has already been maximized. Fiber strains have been selected for low seed production, so that most hemp germplasm has certainly not been selected for oilseed characteristics. By contrast, drug varieties have been selected for very high yield of flowers, and accordingly produce very high yield of seeds. Drug varieties have been observed to produce more than a kilogram of seed per plant, so that a target yield of several tonnes per hectare is conceivable (Watson and Clarke 1997). Of course, the high THC in drug cultivars makes these a difficult source of germplasm. However, wild plants of C. sativa have naturally undergone selection for high seed productivity, and are a particularly important potential source of breeding germplasm.

Would I say that CBD oil has fundamentally changed my life? No. But per the Charlotte's Web website, this is the typical first experience. "Anyone who has ever started a new vitamin or supplement routine knows the short answer to how long it takes to kick in is—'it depends,'" reads the article on what to expect from hemp oil. "For many newcomers, they're not sure what to imagine, or some anticipate a huge change right away. For most of us, though, dietary supplements take time."


Today, cannabis use no longer caters to the hippies. Marijuana marketing is now so vast that entire brands and product lines have been designed to appeal to women, seniors, men, the high-end market, and everything in between. Once illicit, once only sourced from the black market, now legal in a majority of US states, yet remains a federally illegal substance: no matter which way you choose to look at it, cannabis is now mainstream.
1) start with a vape or a tincture or smoking, not edibles or pills. vapes and tinctures and smoking have immediate effect, so you’ll be able to tell how much you are using and whether it has an effect. Try to stick with taking a dose, then waiting to be genuinely mindful of the effect before taking more – this will prevent you from raising your tolerance and will allow you to figure out what the right dose for you is.
Yet, even with this progress, hemp businesses seem to face difficulty expanding in the US as they face challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches. According to a case study done by Forbes, hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana.[105]
Ten years ago hemp cultivation was illegal in Germany, England, Canada, Australia, and other countries. Essential to overcoming governmental reluctance in each country was the presentation of an image that was business-oriented, and conservative. The merits of environmentalism have acquired some political support, but unless there is a reasonable possibility that hemp cultivation is perceived as potentially economically viable, there is limited prospect of having anti-hemp laws changed. Strong support from business and farm groups is indispensable; support from pro-marijuana interests and what are perceived of as fringe groups is generally counterproductive. It is a combination of prospective economic benefit coupled with assurance that hemp cultivation will not detrimentally affect the enforcement of marijuana legislation that has led most industrially advanced countries to reverse prohibitions against growing hemp. Should the US permit commercial hemp cultivation to resume, it will likely be for the same reasons.
Whole-plant or full-spectrum extracts are considered to be the most therapeutically effective. In this form, CBD works in conjunction with other cannabinoids to produce what’s called the entourage effect: the result of numerous types of cannabinoids, each with a specific function, working together. You’ll sometimes see THC in the mix as well; aside from its recreational aspects, it has its own set of medicinal properties and can be particularly effective against severe pain.
Cannabis sativa is extremely unusual in the diversity of products for which it is or can be cultivated. Popular Mechanics magazine (1938) touted hemp as “the new billion dollar crop,” stating that it “can be used to produce more than 25,000 products, ranging from dynamite to Cellophane.” Table 1 presents the principal products for which the species is cultivated in Europe, all of which happen to be based on fiber. This presentation stresses the products that hold the most promise for North America, which also include a considerable range of oilseed applications (Table 2; Fig. 1).
Marijuana is the most popular illicit drug in the world, for no reason other than the fact that it produces a psychoactive chemical called tetrahydrocannabinol. Still, recreational marijuana use, which involves pursuing the euphoric sensations produced by cannabis consumption, is steadily becoming more and more legal, both in the United States and abroad.
Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens findings from a limited number of well-designed studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use. However, the evidence is mixed when it comes to the carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term marijuana users, according to this study.
CBD products that don't contain THC fall outside the scope of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Controlled Substances Act, which means CBD products are legal to sell and consume as long as they don't have THC. That's likely one of the reasons why CBD products, including CBD oil, are becoming more socially acceptable and increasingly popular. In 2016, Forbes reported that CBD products are expected to be a $2.2 billion industry by 2020.
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Feminized cannabis seeds are designed to produce only female plants.Usually, a cannabis seed can develop into a male or female plant; the entire process is determined by the sex expressing X and Y chromosomes. "Feminization" is a process of conditioning female plants to obtain male pollen needed for seed production.A plant with two X chromosomes will be female 99% of the time, while regular cannabis seeds (XY genetic set) sometimes have a tendency to produce more male than female individuals.

Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved treatment in the U.S. that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana -- CBD -- and the first treatment for Dravet syndrome. In September 2018 the FDA rescheduled cannabidiol from a C-I controlled substance to a C-V controlled substance, meaning it has a proven medical use but a low risk of abuse. This change allows Epidiolex to be marketed in the U.S.
Cannabis played a large role in the Greco-Roman cultures as a source of both fiber, an intoxicant, and a medicine. Cannabis seeds were discovered in the ruins of Pompeii, and Greek rhetorician Athenaeus made note of hemp being used to make rope between 170 and 230 CE. Roman author and naturalist Pliny the Elder also made reference to a cannabis root decoction as a treatment for joint stiffness and gout in the first (1st) century BCE.
Engineered yeast have been used to tackle the scarcity problem in other ways before. In the 1960s, researchers discovered that the taxanes from Pacific yew tree bark can fight cancer. All well and good, except for the Pacific yew, which conservationists feared would go extinct in the hands of an eager medical establishment. But as with this cannabinoid-producing yeast, researchers engineered microbes to help make the drug—deforestation-free.
In the last few decades, scientists also began looking into using CBD for dogs and cats, examining its health benefits and safety, and a lot more animal studies have emerged as a result (Iffland et al. 2017; Cannabis Cannabinoid Res). Today, we're seeing a lot of news relating to how dogs recover from many diseases, some of which are initially said to be fatal, thanks to the use of CBD products.
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Over 100 phytocannabinoids, as well as terpenoids, fatty acids, and other compounds with health relevance, have been found in Cannabis. The pharmacological importance of cannabinoids has been intensively studied. Multiple mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on the nervous system are being elucidated. Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Hemp seed oil and terpenoids have health-promoting effects. The relationship between Cannabis chemotype and genotype is being revealed by chemical and genetic analyses. Various omics platform facilitate the basic and applied studies of Cannabis plants. An expanded Cannabaceae family, which consists of six genera, is advocated. This chapter summarizes the recent research progress of phytochemistry, pharmacology, and omics of Cannabis plants.
Canada is specialized on oilseed production and processing, so that hemp oil and grain are much more suitable than fiber. Because of the extensive development of oilseeds in Canada, there is extensive capacity to produce high-quality cold-pressed hemp oil. Canada in the last 5 years has made great advances in the growing, harvesting, and processing of hempseed, and indeed has moved ahead of the EU in the development of raw materials and products for the natural foods, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics industries. In the EU, a yield of 1 t/ha is considered good. In Canada, extraordinary yields of 1.5 t/ha have been realized, at least locally, although in the initial years of hempseed development in Canada yields were often less than 500 kg/ha. In 1999, the year of largest Canadian hemp acreage, yields averaged 900 kg/ha. (Ideally, hemp seed yield should be based on air dry weight—with about 12% moisture. Hemp yields are sometime uncertain, and could be exaggerated by as much as 50% when moist weights are reported.)
It’s a proven fact that all mammals, people and pet’s alike, have an Endocannabinoid System. That means that your pet can enjoy the same amazing healing properties of CBD just as people do. The Endocannabinoid System is a huge network comprised of many cannabinoid receptors located throughout the body. This crucial system is used by the body to help maintain homeostasis.
• Speaking of which: Has it been third-party tested? Nearly every expert Health spoke to agreed that your CBD products should be tested by a third party to confirm the label's accuracy. This is a real concern in the industry—take the 2017 Journal of the American Medical Association study, for example, which tested 84 CBD products and found that 26% contained lower doses than stated on the bottle. Look for a quality assurance stamp or certificate of analysis from a third party (aka not the actual brand) or check the retailer's website if you don't see it on the product's label.

Customers looking to buy CBD creams will find the best CBD lotion at Green Roads. CBD is an natural compound that is found in the industrial hemp plant. In order to produce the highest quality CBD muscle rub, Green Roads uses hemp that has been grown in the United States. The United States has a long history of growing hemp. In fact, it has been grown on our home continent since 1645! Our CBD cream for sale is a CBD topical cream. A topical cream is a product that is applied directly to the skin. CBD Pain Cream is a unique item that has been artfully crafted by a licensed pharmacist with twenty years of experience.

The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile-grade fibre.
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CBD, or cannabidiol, is a cannabinoid found in the hemp plant. As we’ve discovered more about the human species as well as the plants that we’ve learned of the immense health value that CBD brings to the table. It has quickly become a staple supplement for millions who seek a natural alternative to dangerous pharmaceuticals, alien to nature’s perfect remedies.
^ Gobbi, Gabriella; Atkin, Tobias; Zytynski, Tomasz; Wang, Shouao; Askari, Sorayya; Boruff, Jill; Ware, Mark; Marmorstein, Naomi; Cipriani, Andrea; Dendukuri, Nandini; Mayo, Nancy (13 February 2019). "Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Risk of Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidality in Young Adulthood". JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4500. Retrieved 13 February 2019.

Fortunately for cannabis-curious pet-owners, the spread of legalization across the country is giving doctors enough resources (nerve) to take research into their own hands. In Colorado, Dr. Stephanie McGrath, a neurologist and assistant professor at Colorado State University's College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, has completed two clinical studies since 2016 on the effects of cannabidiol in dogs with osteoarthritis or epilepsy. In January, the American Kennel Club granted Dr. McGrath $350,000 for her to begin a three-year crossover study of CBD for epilepsy in dogs. Legislation has been proposed in New York and California that would establish guidelines and allow veterinarians to legally discuss the use of cannabis products with their clients.
In the meantime, some physicians are forging ahead — and cashing in. Joe Cohen is a doctor at Holos Health, a medical marijuana clinic in Boulder. I asked him what CBD is good for, and he read me a long list of conditions: pain, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramping, anxiety, psychosis, muscle spasms, hyperactive immune systems, nervous system degeneration, elevated blood sugar and more. He also claimed that CBD has anti-cancer properties and can regenerate brain cells and reduce the brain’s levels of amyloid beta — a kind of protein that’s been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. I asked for references, noting that most of these weren’t listed in the Academies report or a similar review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. “I think you just have to Google search it,” he said. It’s true that a preliminary study found hints that cannabinoids might reduce beta amyloid proteins in human brain cells, but the study was done in cells grown in a lab, not in people. As for cancer, the FDA sent warning letters last year to four companies that were selling products that claimed to “prevent, diagnose, treat or cure” cancer.
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