We're on the edge of a CBD explosion. The U.S. market for CBD products is estimated to be worth $2.1 billion by 2020, up 700 percent from 2016; the World Anti-Doping Agency removed CBD from its list of banned substances; the Food and Drug Administration approved an epilepsy medication containing CBD oil for the first time, causing the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration to shift its stance — albeit very slightly — on CBD. 

Every animal with a spinal column has an endocannabinoid system (ECS), which scientists estimate evolved more than 600 million years ago and has been carried forward across the millennia. This ancient system—discovered through the work of several researchers between roughly 1965 and 1995—is named for Cannabis sativa L., the plant species that most dramatically affects it. Its basic functions have been summarized as to “relax, eat, sleep, forget and protect.”
Yet, even with this progress, hemp businesses seem to face difficulty expanding in the US as they face challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches. According to a case study done by Forbes, hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana.[105]

Despite the fact that Cannabis was grown on a large scale in many countries, the abuse as a narcotic remained uncommon in Western countries until relatively recently. People were largely unaware of the psychoactive properties of Cannabis and it is unlikely that early cultivars, selected mainly for their seed or fiber qualities, contained significant amounts of the psychoactive THC. The medicinal use of Cannabis was introduced in Europe only around 1840, by a young Irish doctor, William O’Shaughnessy, who served for the East India Trading Company in India, where the medicinal use of Cannabis was widespread. Unlike the European fiber Cannabis, these Indian varieties did contain a reasonable amount of bioactive cannabinoids. In the following decades, the medicinal use of Cannabis saw a short period of popularity both in Europe and in the United States. At the top of its popularity, more than 28 different medicinal preparations were available with Cannabis as active ingredient, which were recommended for indications as various as menstrual cramps, asthma, cough, insomnia, support of birth labor, migraine, throat infection, and withdrawal from opium use.27
Until very recently, the most convincing evidence that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia came from a 15-year prospective study of cannabis use and schizophrenia in 50 465 Swedish conscripts (Andreasson et al., 1987). This study investigated the relationship between self-reported cannabis use at age 18 and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Swedish psychiatric case register during the next 15 years. Andreasson and colleagues found a dose–response relationship between the risk of schizophrenia and the number of times cannabis had been used by age 18 (1.3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–10 times, 3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–50 times, and 6 times higher for those who had used cannabis more than 50 times). These risks were reduced after statistical adjustment for potentially confounding variables (a psychiatric diagnosis at age 18, and parental divorce), but the relationships remained statistically significant.
Laboratory evidence indicated that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, increasing plasma concentrations which may raise THC availability to receptors and enhance its effect in a dose-dependent manner.[24][25] In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited receptors affecting the activity of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels, which may affect neural activity.[26] A small clinical trial reported that CBD partially inhibited the CYP2C-catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC.[27]
Many dog owners are already making their dog treat. They personalize it according to their pet’s likes and favorites. Pet owners can also infuse the CBD compound into their homemade cbd treats for dogs. In this way, their dogs will enjoy their food while ingesting the cannabidiol compound. Homemade CBD treats are made by merely adding CBD oil supplements to your dog treat recipe. Each 1-ounce bottle of CBD oil supplement contains 100 mg of CBD while a container of 2-ounce includes 500 mg of CBD. Another good thing about making homemade CBD dog treat is that the dosage of CBD compound given to your dog is controlled and regulated. In that way, you can track his consumption, and you can adjust the dosage according to the effect of the dog treat to your dog.
AC/DC: A Sativa-dominant phenotype of Cannatonic, this cultivar boasts one of the highest ratios of CBD to THC, clocking in at 20:1. AC/DC is claimed to help reduce pain, anxiety, depression and migraines while reducing symptoms in patients with epilepsy, some forms of cancer, and multiple sclerosis. This cultivar’s pinene-rich terpene profile offers potent clear-headed pain relief.
Cannabis, a drug prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa (including marijuana, resin, and “skunk”), is used widely throughout the world and is especially popular in North America, Western Europe, West and Central Africa, and Oceania (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009). Several studies within the past decade have investigated the effect of continuous use of cannabis on psychotic illnesses, specifically schizophrenia. Zammit, Allebeck, Andreasson, Lundberg, and Lewis (2002) in Sweden found that those who smoked cannabis had a twofold increased risk of developing schizophrenia within 15 years. In addition, the researchers also found a dose–response relationship; subjects who used cannabis more heavily (over 50 reported occasions) were six times as likely to develop schizophrenia compared to those who did not use cannabis at all.
Seizures occur when there is abnormal activity in the brain, which causes the body to shut down and often go into a state of convulsion.  Depending on the disorder, seizures can occur as rarely as once per month or as often as multiple times in a single day. It is absolutely devastating to live with seizures, and prolonged seizures can even lead to brain damage. CBD treatment for seizures is actually one of the leading topics in the medical community today, with tons of research being done to determine the effectiveness of CBD in treating seizures. In 2015, a study by the American Epilepsy Society confirmed that CBD was effective in reducing both the frequency and severity of seizures, with a median reduction rate of 45.1%. This is great news for not only people suffering from seizures but dogs as well! In fact, using CBD oil for dog seizures is one of CBD’s most common usages for pets.
Still, as the saying goes, absence of evidence isn’t necessarily evidence of absence, and there’s a reason we don’t have a ton of solid research on CBDs yet — “to study it, we need a good source, ” said Ziva Cooper, who is an associate professor at Columbia University and was on the National Academies committee. CBD is hard to get because it’s still technically a Schedule I drug, which limits its availability, Cooper said.

After the Restoration of Independence in 1640, in order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet, were encouraged its cultivation as the Royal Decree of D. John IV in 1656. At that time its cultivation was carried out in Trás-os-Montes, Zone Tower Moncorvo, more precisely in Vilariça Valley, fertile land for any crop irrigation, and a very large area, flat and very fertile culture still wide until the last century grew up tobacco, a plant that needs a large space to expand and grow, the area lies in the valley of Serra de Bornes.[citation needed]

Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production of hemp in the West took off in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England.[147] Because of colonial and naval expansion of the era, economies needed large quantities of hemp for rope and oakum. In the early 1940s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from 250 000 to 350 000 metric tonnes, Russia was the biggest producer.[132]

Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[42] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[43] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[44] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[45] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[46][47][48]
While normally I'd be slightly tripped up by little things like an overly crowded subway car or a full inbox at work, the CBD oil seems to have taken the edge off of my anxiety a bit. Rather than overthinking a sternly worded email or analyzing a social interaction, I've found it easier to recognize the irrationality of these thoughts and actually let them go (instead of ruminating on the situation). In some ways, I feel more like myself. With that said, I've still experienced some social anxiety when meeting new groups of people—I'd be interested to see what taking the full recommended dose would do.
We believe the perfect ratio depends on your tolerance for the psychoactive effects of THC. It also depends on the symptoms youre treating and the time of day. For example, one might take a high CBD, low THC ratio in the morning for anxiety relief without feelings of impairment (like the 18:1), and a more balanced ratio of CBD-to-THC at night to help with sleep (like the 2:1 or 1:1). #thisisCBD #cbd #CareByDesign
All available evidence indicates that long term use of PurCBD+ causes no side effects; however, PurCBD+ has only truly been available for pets for a couple years. The most common reason our customers cite for using CBD is to replace prescription drugs that have a known history of long term side effects. Always consult your veterinarian and use our dosing chart/schedule to coordinate the use of dietary supplements like PurCBD with prescription medications.
Hemp does best on a loose, well-aerated loam soil with high fertility and abundant organic matter. Well-drained clay soils can be used, but poorly-drained clay soils are very inappropriate because of their susceptibility to compaction, which is not tolerated. Young plants are sensitive to wet or flooded soils, so that hemp must have porous, friable, well-drained soils. Sandy soils will grow good hemp, provided that adequate irrigation and fertilization are provided, but doing so generally makes production uneconomical. Seedbed preparation requires considerable effort. Fall plowing is recommended, followed by careful preparation of a seedbed in the spring. The seedbed should be fine, level, and firm. Seed is best planted at 2–3 cm (twice as deep will be tolerated). Although the seedlings will germinate and survive at temperatures just above freezing, soil temperatures of 8°–10°C are preferable. Generally hemp should be planted after danger of hard freezes, and slightly before the planting date of maize. Good soil moisture is necessary for seed germination, and plenty of rainfall is needed for good growth, especially during the first 6 weeks. Seeding rate is specific to each variety, and this information should be sought from the supplier. Fiber strains are typically sown at a minimum rate of 250 seeds per m2 (approximately 45 kg/ha), and up to three times this density is sometimes recommended. In western Europe, seeding rates range from 60–70 kg/ha for fiber cultivars. Recommendations for seeding rates for grain production vary widely, from 10–45 kg/ha. Densities for seed production for tall, European, dual-purpose cultivars are less than for short oilseed cultivars. Low plant densities, as commonly found in growing tall European cultivars for seed, may not suppress weed growth adequately, and under these circumstances resort to herbicides may pose a problem for those wishing to grow hempseed organically. Hemp requires about the same fertility as a high-yielding crop of wheat. Industrial hemp grows well in areas that corn produces high yields. Growing hemp may require addition of up to 110 kg/ha of nitrogen, and 40–90 kg/ha of potash. Hemp particularly requires good nitrogen fertilization, more so for seed production than fiber. Adding nitrogen when it is not necessary is deleterious to fiber production, so that knowledge of the fertility of soils being used is very important. Organic matter is preferably over 3.5%, phosphorus should be medium to high (>40 ppm), potassium should be medium to high (>250 ppm), sulfur good (>5,000 ppm), and calcium not in excess (<6,000 ppm).
Hemp stalk is baled for transportation and long-term storage using traditional farming balers. Large round balers are best for hemp because they allow for more thorough drying as they don’t pack the hemp as tightly as square balers. Hemp should be stored in a dry environment in conditions intended to reduce as much absorbable air moisture as possible. It’s also important to check for wet patches during baling to further avoid mold.
Hemp is possibly one of the earliest plants to be cultivated.[109][110] An archeological site in the Oki Islands near Japan contained cannabis achenes from about 8000 BC, probably signifying use of the plant.[111] Hemp use archaeologically dates back to the Neolithic Age in China, with hemp fiber imprints found on Yangshao culture pottery dating from the 5th millennium BC.[108][112] The Chinese later used hemp to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper.[108] The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation.[113]
In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis took on added significance in North America. Laws prohibiting Cannabis in the United States and Canada specifically named products of C. sativa as prohibited materials. Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa, and was therefore not prohibited by law. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr. Richard E. Schultes and others testified for the defense. The botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned the other's integrity.[57][58] The defense attorneys were not often successful in winning their case, because the intent of the law was clear.[65]

In Buddhism, cannabis is generally regarded as an intoxicant and may be a hindrance to development of meditation and clear awareness. In ancient Germanic culture, Cannabis was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya.[121][122] An anointing oil mentioned in Exodus is, by some translators, said to contain Cannabis.[123] Sufis have used Cannabis in a spiritual context since the 13th century CE.[124]
Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and disorders are associated in the general population (see, for example, Degenhardt and Hall, 2001; Tien and Anthony, 1990) and in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia (Mueser et al., 1992; Warner et al., 1994; Hambrecht and Hafner, 1996). The major contending hypotheses to explain the association have been: (i) that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are otherwise vulnerable; (ii) cannabis use is a form of self-medication for schizophrenia; and (iii) that the association arises from uncontrolled residual confounding by variables that predict an increased risk of cannabis use and of schizophrenia (Macleod et al., 2004).
Use of industrial hemp plant and its cultivation was commonplace until the 1900s, when it was associated with its genetic sibling a.k.a. Drug-Type Cannabis species (which contain higher levels of psychoactive THC). Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous "drug", even though it is not a 'drug' and it has the potential to be a sustainable and profitable alternative crop.[citation needed][neutrality is disputed]
Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., Hallak, J. E., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., Martin-Santos, R., … & Guimarães, F. S. (2012). A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol: 30 years of a translational investigation [Abstract]. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18(32), 5,131–5,140. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22716160

"It's important to know that the research in this area is in its infancy, partly because we haven't really understood much about CBD until relatively recently," said Marcel Bonn-Miller, an adjunct assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. He pointed out that the classification of marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug by the DEA makes it difficult to get material to use in laboratory studies. Schedule 1 drugs have a high potential for abuse, according to the DEA, and are illegal under federal law.
Researchers have shown that CBD carries many potential health benefits. These health benefits include; Reducing inflammation & pain, improving circulation, promoting bone growth, reducing stress levels and anxiety, reducing nausea and stimulating the appetite, increasing cognitive functions, lowering blood sugar levels, reducing seizures, inhibiting cancer cell growth, and improving overall wellness and health for your pet.
Ten US states have legalized use of recreational marijuana as of November 2018. In 2012, voters in Colorado and Washington state passed initiatives legalizing cannabis for adults 21 and older under state law. In November 2014, Oregon, Alaska, and Washington D.C also approved recreational use of marijuana. In November 2016, four more states - California, Massachusetts, Maine, and Nevada - voted in recreational marijuana. On July 1, 2018 Vermont began allowing recreational use. In 2018, Michigan voted to legalize pot for recreational use, but a measure in North Dakota failed.
Cannabis use started to become popular in the United States in the 1970s.[252] Support for legalization has increased in the United States and several U.S. states have legalized recreational or medical use.[282] A 2018 Social Science Research study found that the main determinants of such changes in attitudes toward marijuana regulation since the 1990s were changes in media framing of marijuana, a decline in perception of the riskiness of marijuana, a decline in overall punitiveness, and a decrease in religious affiliation. [283]
This takes us to the next problem: There is no regulation around how much active CBD or THC is in each cream or how much of the compound is needed to see relief. Read: "If you have three products that say 1 percent CBD infused in coconut oil, one could be great and the other two could be crap—that's the reality of cannabis medicine right now," Gerdeman says.
Leafly is the world’s largest cannabis information resource, empowering people in legal cannabis markets to learn about the right products for their lifestyle and wellness needs. Our team of cannabis professionals collectively share years of experience in all corners of the market, from growing and retail, to science and medicine, to data and technology.
CBD has powerful effects on the liver as well. Have you ever had a prescription that warns you not to take the medicine along with grapefruit? That’s because grapefruit inhibits certain drug-metabolizing enzymes in your liver, resulting in much higher levels of your medication in your bloodstream. CBD does the same thing, so it is wise to discuss your medication regimen with a doctor or pharmacist before engaging in CBD therapy.
Highly selected forms of the fiber cultigen possess features maximizing fiber production. Since the nodes tend to disrupt the length of the fiber bundles, thereby limiting quality, tall, relatively unbranched plants with long internodes have been selected. Another strategy has been to select stems that are hollow at the internodes, with limited wood, since this maximizes production of fiber in relation to supporting woody tissues. Similarly, limited seed productivity concentrates the plant’s energy into production of fiber, and fiber cultivars often have low genetic propensity for seed output. Selecting monoecious strains overcomes the problem of differential maturation times and quality of male (staminate) and female (pistillate) plants (males mature 1–3 weeks earlier). Male plants in general are taller, albeit slimmer, less robust, and less productive. Except for the troublesome characteristic of dying after anthesis, male traits are favored for fiber production, in contrast to the situation for drug strains noted below. In former, labor-intensive times, the male plants were harvested earlier than the females, to produce superior fiber. The limited branching of fiber cultivars is often compensated for by possession of large leaves with wide leaflets, which obviously increase the photosynthetic ability of the plants. Since fiber plants have not generally been selected for narcotic purposes, the level of intoxicating constituents is usually limited.

Cannabis is a flowering plant used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. Three main types (species, subspecies, or varieties) of the cannabis genus have been recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive/addictive ingredient of cannabis; the effects of this compound are most commonly associated with binding to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (Hoffman & Lupica, 2013).
“Cannatonic” is one known popular CBD-rich strain which is known to contain 6.5% CBD by weight, and the same amount of THC, making for one of the most medicinal strains out there. Sour Tsunami, Ghost Rider, Harlequin, Jamaican Lion and Omrita Rx3 have been tested several times by several labs as high as 18% CBD with equal or lower percentages of THC (3:2 ratio of CBD to THC in most cases).
Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation—the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.[46]
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