CBD (cannabidiol) is a compound found in cannabis and hemp. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) can also be found in cannabis. It’s this compound that gives marijuana its psychoactive properties. Most CBD oils are just that … the beneficial CBD without the THC. And they typically come from hemp, not marijuana. In short, your dog won’t get “high” from CBD oil … he’ll get the relaxation without the intoxication.
Foreign sources, China in particular, can produce hemp seed cheaply, but imported seed must be sterilized, and the delays this usually requires are detrimental. Seed that has been sterilized tends to go rancid quickly, and so it is imperative that fresh seed be available, a great advantage for domestic production. An additional extremely significant advantage that domestic producers have over foreign sources is organic production, which is important for the image desired by the hemp food market. Organic certification is much more reliable in North America than in the foreign countries that offer cheap seeds. Whereas China used to supply most of the hempseed used for food in North America, Canadian-grown seeds have taken over this market.
Jackson Leyden had always been a healthy kid; he practiced taekwondo, and he played lacrosse and baseball. But in 2011, a few months after his eighth birthday, he began having seizures several times a day. Many were brief, a half-minute of staring into space, but he also had severe episodes in which he would collapse, sometimes injuring himself. Over the next two years, he was hospitalized about 50 times, and he missed much of fourth and fifth grade.

Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[31] It has also been found to act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[12] Although currently classified as orphan receptors, these receptors are most closely related phylogenetically to the cannabinoid receptors.[12] In addition to orphan receptors, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist,[32] and this action may be involved in its antidepressant,[33][34] anxiolytic,[34][35] and neuroprotective effects.[36][37] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[38] The pharmacological effects of CBD have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]
Best pain medication – EVER! Bought your products from an Expo. I have extreme knee pain walking up and down stairs. I like the cream better than the skin oil. Relief is almost immediate. I thanked God for such a miracle, then I got mad as hell that our government has banned this for so long. Ridiculous!!!! Thank you for making this product. I walked 17 miles recently, as if I was 21 again.

An absence of such fiber-strain traits as tallness, limited branching, long internodes, and very hollow stems, is characteristic of narcotic strains. Drug forms have historically been grown in areas south of the north-temperate zone, often close to the equator, and are photoperiodically adapted to a long season. When grown in north-temperate climates maturation is much-delayed until late fall, or the plants succumb to cold weather before they are able to produce seeds. Unlike fiber strains that have been selected to grow well at extremely high densities, drug strains tend to be less persistent when grown in high concentration (de Meijer 1994). Drug strains can be very similar in appearance to fiber strains. However, a characteristic type of narcotic plant was selected in southern Asia, particularly in India and neighboring countries. This is dioecious, short (about a meter in height), highly branched, with large leaves (i.e. wide leaflets), and it is slow to mature. The appearance is rather like a short, conical Christmas tree.

The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype. Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX.[32] According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis had been published as of 1996.[33] Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.[34]
“Cannatonic” is one known popular CBD-rich strain which is known to contain 6.5% CBD by weight, and the same amount of THC, making for one of the most medicinal strains out there. Sour Tsunami, Ghost Rider, Harlequin, Jamaican Lion and Omrita Rx3 have been tested several times by several labs as high as 18% CBD with equal or lower percentages of THC (3:2 ratio of CBD to THC in most cases).
There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to the variety of non-volatile solvents used.[189] The plant material is mixed with the solvent and then pressed and filtered to express the oils of the plant into the solvent. Examples of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy butter, cooking oil, glycerine, and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis foods or applied topically.[190]
While the science behind CBD oil assuaged many of my concerns, Charlotte Figi's inspiring story was the kicker. Figi, a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with a rare and resistant form of epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome, was actually placed on hospice care and given a "do not resuscitate" order when her parents, desperate and frustrated with pharmaceutical medication, considered medical marijuana. Charlotte is now 99% seizure-free since she began supplementing with Charlotte Web's CBD oil, which the brand named after Figi.

Yet even those who believe in this power recognize that CBD medicine remains largely unexplored: Treatments are not systematized, many products are not standardized or tested, and patients (or their parents) are generally left to figure out dosing on their own. While some suppliers and dispensaries test the CBD and THC levels of their products, many do not. “We really need more research, and more evidence,” Kogan says. “This has to be done scientifically.”
Please do not ask emergency or other specific medical questions about your pets in the blog comments. As an online informational resource, Preventive Vet is unable to and does not provide specific medical advice or counseling. A thorough physical exam, patient history, and an established veterinary-patient-client relationship is required to provide specific medical advice. If you are worried that your pet is having an emergency or if you have specific medical questions related to your pet’s current or chronic medical conditions, please contact or visit your veterinarian, an animal-specific poison control hotline, or your local emergency veterinary care center.

In late 2017, researchers with the University of Guelph in Canada published the first-ever study to document the ideal growing conditions for cannabis. Using liquid organic fertilizer with a PKN ratio of 1.3P–1.7K-4.0N, the experiment tested five increasing rates of fertilization. They also tested two coir-based soil-less growing media, or “substrates.”
Over the ages, countless innovations have attempted to improve on the basic experience of inhaling the smoke of combusted cannabis. As a result, there are numerous ways to smoke marijuana. The rolling technique is at the root of joints, blunts, and spliffs. On the other hand, glassware and other devices are essential for smoking weed out of a pipe, bong, or bubbler.
Protein. Hemp seeds contain 25%–30% protein, with a reasonably complete amino acid spectrum. About two thirds of hempseed protein is edestin. All eight amino acids essential in the human diet are present, as well as others. Although the protein content is smaller than that of soybean, it is much higher than in grains like wheat, rye, maize, oat, and barley. As noted above, the oilcake remaining after oil is expressed from the seeds is a very nutritious feed supplement for livestock, but it can also be used for production of a high-protein flour.

All CBD products start out the same way: as an extract from the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants. At Green Roads, we only extract CBD from hemp, defined as any variety of cannabis plant containing less than 0.3% THC by dry weight. Cannabinoids and terpenes are produced by tiny glands on the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants known as trichomes. The compounds produced by these trichomes give cannabis both its rich aroma and its nutraceutical effects.
There is certainly a need to utilize available germplasm sources in order to breed suitable cultivars for North America. A list of the 24 approved cultivars for the 2001 season in Canada is at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html. Most of these are regulated by the European Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These cultivars are “approved” for use in Canada not on agricultural criteria, but merely on the basis that they meet the THC criterion. Indeed, most of these are unsuitable or only marginally suitable for Canada (Small and Marcus 2000), and only a very few Canadian cultivars to date have been created. In Canada, every acquisition of hemp grown at a particular place and time must be tested for THC content by an independent laboratory and, under the industrial hemp regulations, fields of hemp with more than 0.3% THC may require destruction (a slight degree of flexibility is generally exercised). Importation of experimental hemp lines (i.e. other than the approved cultivars) requires importation licenses (as well as phytosanitary clearance of the shipment by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency), and the importation licenses require an indication that the THC contents are low.
^ Advocates of legalizing marijuana for recreational use, such as Illinois state Senator Heather Steans, has said that legalizing it would help reduce such hazardous added drugs: "Over 95 percent are buying it on the black market. You don’t know what you’re buying. It’s not a safe product. We’ve seen it laced with rat poison, fentanyl, all sorts of things. It’s funding the cartels and other criminal activity."[82]
Given CBD’s reputation as a popular, artisanal remedy, one would think that Epidiolex would command a lot of “off label” attention. After all, physicians often prescribe pharmaceuticals off label to treat conditions that were not the actual focus of clinical trials. But the costly price tag for Epidiolex (more than $30,000 annually) precludes off label prescribing as well as affordable access for tens of millions of Americans without health insurance.

Marijuana looks contrastingly different from hemp. When you observe their leaves, marijuana’s shape tends to either be broad leafed, a tight bud, or look like a nugget with organd hairs.  Hemp, on the other hand, has skinnier leaves that’s concentrated at the top. Few branches or leaves exist below the top part of the plant. When you observe the plants from afar, marijuana looks like a short fat bush. Hemp is typically skinnier and taller (up to 20 ft). At times, it almost looks like long ditchweed – hemp was actually found to grow among weeds in Nebraska. In general, when you compare a marijuana farm with those of industrial hemp, you’ll notice that they are clearly very different from one another.
Hemp isn’t completely absent of psychoactive compounds, but that doesn’t mean it will get you high. Hemp plants simply don’t produce enough THC to have an intoxicating effect. CBD, though psychoactive, is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid and won’t produce any form of a euphoric high on its own. In other words, hemp has plenty of therapeutic potential, but you’ll have to look elsewhere if you want to get high.
Retting is generally done in the field (Fig. 46, 47). This typically requires weeks. The windrows should be turned once or twice. If not turned, the stems close to the ground will remain green while the top ones are retted and turn brown. When the stalks have become sufficiently retted requires experience—the fibers should have turned golden or grayish in color, and should separate easily from the interior wood. Baling can be done with any kind of baler (Fig. 48). Stalks should have less than 15% moisture when baled, and should be allowed to dry to about 10% in storage. Bales must be stored indoors. Retted stalks are loosely held together, and for highest quality fiber applications need to be decorticated, scutched, hackled, and combed to remove the remaining pieces of stalks, broken fibers, and extraneous material. The equipment for this is rare in North America, and consequently use of domestically-produced fiber for high quality textile applications is extremely limited. However, as described above relatively crude fiber preparations also have applications.
Hemp is a sustainable crop as it grows more vigorously than other plants. It requires less water, pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. Hemp has over 25,000 known uses and has proven to be friendly to the environment, hence favorable on an industrial scale. Hemp can be used in making products such as clothing, shoes, animal food, ropes, textiles, bio-fuel, and bio-plastics. Its stalks can even be used as alternative building materials.
The black-market purchases were 8% lower than in the third quarter, the first to follow full legalization of cannabis for adult recreational use on Oct. 17. On a percentage basis, illegal sales accounted for 79% of the overall market, down from 90% in the third quarter, the data showed. The development of the legal market was hampered by shortages of product after many provinces underestimated demand.
To not be deemed “marijuana” under state law, hemp products must be derived from one of five specific parts of the plant: the mature stalks, fiber from the stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds or achene of the plant, or any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of the mature stalks or the sterilized seed of the plant which is incapable of germination, the AG’s 2015 opinion says.
Until very recently, the most convincing evidence that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia came from a 15-year prospective study of cannabis use and schizophrenia in 50 465 Swedish conscripts (Andreasson et al., 1987). This study investigated the relationship between self-reported cannabis use at age 18 and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Swedish psychiatric case register during the next 15 years. Andreasson and colleagues found a dose–response relationship between the risk of schizophrenia and the number of times cannabis had been used by age 18 (1.3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–10 times, 3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–50 times, and 6 times higher for those who had used cannabis more than 50 times). These risks were reduced after statistical adjustment for potentially confounding variables (a psychiatric diagnosis at age 18, and parental divorce), but the relationships remained statistically significant.
I have a brother in law who has been diagnosed with cataplexy and narcoplexy, where he starts quivering and slowly loses control of his body and goes into a sleep, which causes him to drop to the ground with mild seizures while he is out. He lives alone (59 years old), but has smoked cannabis since he (we) were teenagers. He still smokes, and is on medication twice a day for this condition, but if he misses those meds by even half an hour, he is at risk of these seizures. The sad part is, these seizures are usually brought on by the smallest emotional change, usually tension, excitement or, the worst thing, if something he finds funny and is the least bit tickled about and starts to laugh, this process will immediately begin. Does anyone know if this kind of condition is treatable with cbd oil’s or concentrates? As I said, he smokes weed, and often grows his own, but he does it for the high and relaxation advantage, since he is basically home-bound due to this condition ending his work career about 4 years ago. Thanks for any replies. I’d be overjoyed if I could tell him there’s a possible solution to the problem other than his prescriptions. Or even if it worked WITH his meds to keep from having to live such a sedentary life.
CBD does not appear to have any psychotropic ("high") effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects.[10] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, experts are working to distinguish "medical marijuana" (with varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from "medical CBD therapies” which would commonly present as having a reduced or non-psychoactive side-effect profile.[10][59]
This article may contain certain forward-looking statements and information, as defined within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and is subject to the Safe Harbor created by those sections. This material contains statements about expected future events and/or financial results that are forward-looking in nature and subject to risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements by definition involve risks, uncertainties.
The “re-“growth of industrial hemp in the United States is heavily regulated, although the neighbouring nation of Canada successfully grows hemp commercially.  Since becoming legal to grow again in Canada, the crop has taken off and has become a booming multi-million dollar export.  Hemp building materials are another growing segment of the hemp industry.  Canada is now a leader in the global hemp food/health marketplace.  Canadian hemp products can be found in many hemp markets now in the United States and the world over.
Hemp Seed Oil is derived from the hemp seeds and are mainly used for dietary purposes (imagine something similar to coconut oil). Refined hemp seed oil can also be used in beauty care products, as they have amazing skin care properties. CBD Hemp oil is not the same thing as hemp seed oil, as it is extracted from one of hemp’s many cannabinoids and have fundamentally different properties.
Based on world production of fibers in 1999, about 54.5% was synthetic (of which 60.3% was polyester), 42.9% was plant fiber (of which 78.5% was cotton), and 2.6% was wool (Karus 2000). In addition to cotton, flax is the only other significant plant fiber crop grown in temperate regions of the world (kenaf has received some enthusiastic backing in the southern US in recent years, but is most cheaply produced in India, Bangladesh, and China). Flax held 2.7% of the world plant fiber market in 1999, while hemp had only 0.3% (Karus 2000). Hemp fiber can potentially replace other biological fibers in many applications, but also, as noted below, can sometimes compete with minerals such as glass fiber and steel. As forests diminish, cultivation of annual plants as fiber sources is likely to increase. While crop residues like cereal straw will probably supply much of the need, specialty fiber plants such as hemp also have potential. The four conditions that will need to be met are (after Bolton 1995): (1) the material should be produced at a large enough scale; (2) the price should be low enough; (3) the fiber characteristics should be adequate for the end use; and (4) proven technology should be available for the processing of the new raw material. Of these criteria only point 3 is adequately met at this time for hemp in North America, but this is to be expected in a crop that has only begun to be cultivated after an absence of many years.
Cannabidiol has been found to carry important health benefits for dogs, cats, and many other species. Even animals as big as horses have responded well to CBD treatments so far. While there are no known drug interactions or problems with dogs or in animal species other than humans, it’s wise to consider dosage based on their body size, metabolism, and other characteristics. It’s a good idea to consult your vet if you’re going to give CBD for dogs to anything other than a household dog or cat.

In 2015, almost half of the people in the United States had tried marijuana, 12% had used it in the past year, and 7.3% had used it in the past month.[31] In 2014, daily marijuana use amongst US college students had reached its highest level since records began in 1980, rising from 3.5% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2014 and had surpassed daily cigarette use.[251]


Those warning letters aside, there’s not a lot of federal oversight right now over the claims being made or the products that are being sold. Cohen warned against buying CBD products online, because “there’s a lot of scams out there.” Yet his clinic sells CBD, and he admits, “I say ‘Don’t buy online,’ but ours is worth doing, because we know what we’re doing. We ship all over.”
In some areas where cannabis use had been historically tolerated, new restrictions were instituted, such as the closing of cannabis coffee shops near the borders of the Netherlands,[222] and closing of coffee shops near secondary schools in the Netherlands.[223] In Copenhagen, Denmark in 2014, mayor Frank Jensen discussed possibilities for the city to legalize cannabis production and commerce.[224]
In 1925, a compromise was made at an international conference in The Hague about the International Opium Convention that banned exportation of "Indian hemp" to countries that had prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes". It also required parties to "exercise an effective control of such a nature as to prevent the illicit international traffic in Indian hemp and especially in the resin".[211][212] In the United States in 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act was passed,[213] and prohibited the production of hemp in addition to cannabis.
In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibers.[148] Speculation about the potential for commercial cultivation of hemp in large quantities has been criticized due to successful competition from other fibers for many products. The world production of hemp fiber fell from over 300,000 metric tons 1961 to about 75,000 metric tons in the early 1990s and has after that been stable at that level.[149]
Customers looking to buy CBD creams will find the best CBD lotion at Green Roads. CBD is an natural compound that is found in the industrial hemp plant. In order to produce the highest quality CBD muscle rub, Green Roads uses hemp that has been grown in the United States. The United States has a long history of growing hemp. In fact, it has been grown on our home continent since 1645! Our CBD cream for sale is a CBD topical cream. A topical cream is a product that is applied directly to the skin. CBD Pain Cream is a unique item that has been artfully crafted by a licensed pharmacist with twenty years of experience.
Some states only allow for products infused with CBD, some only allow for high-CBD and low-THC products, while others allow both THC and CBD. To further confuse the American citizenry, some states permit patients the use of CBD, but require that they travel to another state to purchase it. To make sense of this confounding patchwork and to learn about each individual state’s CBD laws, read the Weedmaps Laws and Regulations page.
Short-term use increases both minor and major adverse effects.[104] Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations.[104] Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear.[106] Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.[103]
Right: The brain contains a huge a number of brain cells (neurons). Each neuron, represented here as a hexagon, is connected to many others. Left: The synapse is the site where two neurons communicate with each other. The “sender neuron” releases chemical signals called neurotransmitters, which stimulate receptors on the “receiver neuron.” There are many different receptor types in the brain, each one sensitive to different neurotransmitters.
Now researchers have turned to yeast to do something more improbable: manufacturing the cannabis compounds CBD and THC. By loading brewer’s yeast with genes from the cannabis plant, they’ve turned the miracle microbes into cannabinoid factories. It’s a clever scheme in a larger movement to methodically pick apart and recreate marijuana’s many compounds, to better understand the plant’s true potential.
Multiple sclerosis (MS). There is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness in people with MS. However, it does not appear to improve muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, the ability to move around, or well-being and quality of life.
But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.
Cannabis plants can be male, female, or hermaphrodite. The dried marijuana flowers that humans consume, however, come from the female plant. That’s because female plants produce large resin-secreting flowers that are rich in cannabinoids and free of seeds. Hence, female plants are the ones growers prefer, though of course, male marijuana plants are a requirement for pollination.
^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, Ogata A, Hazekawa M, Liu AX, Fujioka M, Abe K, Hasebe N, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (March 2007). "Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance". Neuropharmacology. 52 (4): 1079–87. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.11.005. PMID 17320118.
Marijuana looks contrastingly different from hemp. When you observe their leaves, marijuana’s shape tends to either be broad leafed, a tight bud, or look like a nugget with organd hairs.  Hemp, on the other hand, has skinnier leaves that’s concentrated at the top. Few branches or leaves exist below the top part of the plant. When you observe the plants from afar, marijuana looks like a short fat bush. Hemp is typically skinnier and taller (up to 20 ft). At times, it almost looks like long ditchweed – hemp was actually found to grow among weeds in Nebraska. In general, when you compare a marijuana farm with those of industrial hemp, you’ll notice that they are clearly very different from one another.

Lisa Hamilton, a jeweler and doula in Brooklyn, NY, knows about the side effects. She recently tried CBD for the shoulder pain that plagued her five years after an accident. Her doctor certified that she was in chronic pain, which under New York State law allowed her to buy from a state dispensary. One Friday, she swallowed two 10-mg capsules, the amount recommended at the dispensary, then took another two on Saturday. “By Sunday, it felt like I’d gotten hit by a truck. Every muscle and joint ached,” Hamilton says. She cut back to one pill a day the following week, but still felt hungover. She stopped after that.
Last year, the Hemp Industries Association (HIA) estimated the total retail value of all hemp products sold in the U.S. at $620 million. Sadly, all of the raw hemp materials were imported from other countries. (More on that later.) Hemp is an attractive rotation crop for farmers. As it grows, hemp breathes in CO2, detoxifies the soil, and prevents soil erosion. What’s left after harvest breaks down into the soil, providing valuable nutrients.
If you live in a state where CBD is legal for your condition, it’s best to buy it from a state-regulated dispensary. But even there, oversight is uneven. “I feel safe being a cannabis consumer in Colorado, since the state tracks everything from seed to sale, but I didn’t the first few years after cannabis became legal,” when the rules were still taking shape, says Robyn Griggs Lawrence, the Boulder author of The Cannabis Kitchen Cookbook, which features recipes for cannabis edibles.
The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves (see illustration). As is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip. However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment.[12]
Hello, Braden. In today’s society unfortunately, our pets tend to develop some of the same ailments as we humans do. There are many studies showing the benefits of CBD Oil including relieving joint pain relief, stopping seizures and helping with anxiety in your pet. There have also been cases where cancer has been diagnosed but disappeared after using cbd oil products.
Robert J. Silver, DVM and veterinary herbalist of Boulder, Colo., suggested another way to understand this system: “Receptors are like locks, and cannabinoids are like keys. They fit together perfectly. Once the cannabinoid connects to the receptor and turns that lock, a series of actions occur in the cell membrane; these actions are responsible for some of the cannabinoid’s effects.”
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. Today the therapeutic properties of CBD are being tested and confirmed by scientists and doctors around the world. A safe, non-addictive substance, CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis and endow the plant with its robust therapeutic profile.

Zammit and colleagues’ findings were supported in a 3-year longitudinal study of the relationship between self-reported cannabis use and psychosis in a community sample of 4848 people in the Netherlands (van Os et al., 2002). Van Os and colleagues reported that cannabis use at baseline predicted an increased risk of psychotic symptoms during the follow-up period in individuals who had not reported psychiatric symptoms at baseline. There was a dose–response relationship between frequency of cannabis use at baseline and risk of psychotic symptoms during the follow-up period. These relationships persisted when they statistically controlled for the effects of other drug use. The relationship between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms was also stronger for cases with more severe psychotic symptoms.
The following sketch of hemp cultivation is insufficient to address all of the practical problems that are encountered by hemp growers. Bócsa and Karus (1998) is the best overall presentation of hemp growing available in English. The reader is warned that this book, as well as almost all of the literature on hemp, is very much more concerned with fiber production than oilseed production. McPartland et al. (2000) is the best presentation available on diseases and pests, which fortunately under most circumstances do limited damage. The resource list presented below should be consulted by those wishing to learn about hemp production. Provincial agronomists in Canada now have experience with hemp, and can make local recommendations. Particularly good web documents are: for Ontario (OMAFRA Hemp Series, several documents): www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/hort/hemp.html); for Manitoba (several documents): www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/hemp/bko01s00.html; for British Columbia: (BC Ministry of Agriculture and Foods Fact Sheet on Industrial Hemp, prepared by A. Oliver and H. Joynt): www.agf.gov.bc.ca/croplive/plant/horticult/specialty/specialty.htm

Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution.[2] CBD does not have the same psychoactivity as THC,[9][10] and may affect the actions of THC.[7][8][9][11] Although in vitro studies indicate CBD may interact with different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors,[9][12]as of 2018 the mechanism of action for its biological effects has not been determined.[8][9]


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^ Acj, Zondo (2017-08-02). "Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others v Prince (Clarke, Stobbs and Thorpe Intervening) (Doctors of Life International Inc as Amicus Curiae); National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Rubin; National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others v Acton and Others". The Constitutional Court of South Africa.
In a study with HIV-positive adult men, blood concentrations of ghrelin and other appetitive hormones (leptin, PYY, and insulin) were tested after having received smoked medicinal cannabis or matched placebo for HIV-associated neuropathic pain. Cannabis administration, as compared to placebo, significantly increased ghrelin concentrations in this study. In addition, leptin and PYY levels were, respectively, increased and decreased, but no impact on insulin levels was found (Riggs et al., 2012).
Like so many other things, a dog that finds a stash of CBD or other marijuana/hemp products will probably eat more than they should. This will be more of an issue for an edible product like a CBD dog biscuit, but to keep your dog safe be sure that you keep any CBD — and definitely any THC products — well out of your dog’s reach and, ideally, behind a locked door.
It is clear that there is a culture of idealistic believers in hemp in North America, and that there is great determination to establish the industry. As history has demonstrated, unbridled enthusiasm for largely untested new crops touted as gold mines sometimes leads to disaster. The attempt to raise silk in the US is probably the most egregious example. In 1826 a Congressional report that recommended the preparation of a practical manual on the industry resulted in a contagious desire to plant mulberries for silk production, with the eventual collapse of the industry, the loss of fortunes, and a legacy of “Mulberry Streets” in the US (Chapter 2, Bailey 1898). In the early 1980s in Minnesota, Jerusalem artichoke was touted as a fuel, a feed, a food, and a sugar crop. Unfortunately there was no market for the new “wonder crop” and hundreds of farmers lost about $20 million (Paarlberg 1990). The level of “hype” associated with industrial hemp is far more than has been observed before for other new crops (Pinfold Consulting 1998). Probably more so than any plant in living memory, hemp attracts people to attempt its cultivation without first acquiring a realistic appreciation of the possible pitfalls. American presidents George Washington and Thomas Jefferson encouraged the cultivation of hemp, but both lost money trying to grow it. Sadly in Canada in 1999 numerous farmers contracted to grow half of Canada’s crop area for hemp for the American-based Consolidated Growers and Processors, and with the collapse of the firm were left holding very large amounts of unmarketable grain and baled hemp straw. This has represented a most untimely setback for a fledgling industry, but at least has had a sobering effect on investing in hemp. In this section we emphasize why producers should exercise caution before getting into hemp.
With respect to fiber, a “composite” is often defined as a material consisting of 30%–70% fiber and 70%–30% matrix (Bolton 1995). However, in North America particleboards and fiberboards, which generally contain less than 10% adhesive or matrix, are sometimes referred to as composites. This section addresses plastic-type composites. In plastics, fibers are introduced to improve physical properties such as stiffness, impact resistance, bending and tensile strength. Man-made fibers of glass, kevlar and carbon are most commonly used today, but plant fibers offer considerable cost savings along with comparable strength properties.
In 2017, the cultivated area for hemp in the Prairie provinces include Saskatchewan with more than 56,000 acres (23,000 ha), Alberta with 45,000 acres (18,000 ha), and Manitoba with 30,000 acres (12,000 ha).[84] Canadian hemp is cultivated mostly for its food value as hulled hemp seeds, hemp oils and hemp protein powders, with only a small fraction devoted to production of hemp fiber used for construction and insulation.[84]
“Industrial hemp, along with all strains of cannabis, are decades behind other agricultural crops in terms of improved plant genetics,” said Arcadia Chief Financial Officer Matt Plavan. “With the explosive market growth projected in the industrial hemp and derivative markets, growers will need the very best hemp strains to meet demand, minimize waste, and ensure consistent quality.”

^ Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, José A.; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Allen, Paul; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Seal, Marc; Surguladze, Simon A.; O'Carrol, Colin; Atakan, Zerrin; Zuardi, Antonio W.; McGuire, Philip K. (2009). "Distinct Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing". Archives of General Psychiatry. 66 (1): 95–105. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.519. PMID 19124693.


Hemp is not the same as marijuana. One really has nothing to do with the other. Hemp was made illegal back in the days when cotton was king in the south and southern cotton plantation owners did not want the competition. They lobbied for, and got a law against hemp being grown nationwide. It never had to do with drugs at that time, and still doesn’t. As always, money and government go hand in hand. Now, recently, South Carolina has legalized growing hemp again, which is the only state in 50 to do so. We will hope for more enlightened agri-business legislation across the nation, soon.
According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.[117]
^ Juliet Eilperin (February 11, 2013), "'Good seed' versus 'evil weed': Hemp activists eye legalization", The Washington Post – via The Japan Times Online, [A] couple of factors — the high taxes the federal government imposed on growing hemp in the late 1930s and again in the early '50s, and then the DEA's interpretation of the 1970 law — made producing hemp nearly impossible. Since the DEA only grants permits in rare instances and demands costly, elaborate security precautions, large-scale hemp growing in the United States is not viable.
In the 1970s, President Nixon declared a “War on Drugs” and signed into law the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. This law established a set of banned drugs and created the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). It also unintentionally outlawed one of the world’s oldest domesticated crop, hemp. This not only led to the demise of hemp, but also an increased misconception of the plant.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Boggs, Douglas L; Nguyen, Jacques D; Morgenson, Daralyn; Taffe, Michael A; Ranganathan, Mohini (6 September 2017). "Clinical and preclinical evidence for functional interactions of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol". Neuropsychopharmacology. 43 (1): 142–154. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.209. ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 5719112. PMID 28875990.
While research into the effects of CBD on specific conditions is important, a broader perspective on the relationship between CBD and the human body is necessary to understand how this unique compound works. Interestingly, many of the conditions that are supposedly helped by CBD have no well-understood cause, from acne to Alzheimer’s disease. However, one of the few common denominators between these conditions is the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in their causes.
The genus Cannabis was first classified using the "modern" system of taxonomic nomenclature by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, who devised the system still in use for the naming of species.[60] He considered the genus to be monotypic, having just a single species that he named Cannabis sativa L. (L. stands for Linnaeus, and indicates the authority who first named the species). Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam.[61] Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India. He described C. indica as having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa, but greater utility as an inebriant. Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin.[62] However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study. The name Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias, and was widely used to designate Cannabis suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations.[63]

France is Europe's biggest producer (and the world's second largest producer) with 8,000 hectares (20,000 acres) cultivated.[85] 70–80% of the hemp fibre produced in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications. About 15% was used in the automotive sector, and 5-6% was used for insulation mats. About 95% of hurds were used as animal bedding, while almost 5% was used in the building sector.[14] In 2010/2011, a total of 11,000 hectares (27,000 acres) was cultivated with hemp in the EU, a decline compared with previous year.[72][86]
Arthritis is a disease of the joints that comes in many different forms and can cause mild discomfort to extreme pain. Typical symptoms include swelling, stiffness, and decreased range of motion. Just as it can be very discomforting or painful for us, arthritis also affects our dogs, especially as they get older. CBD works with the Vanilloid receptor to help reduce swelling and stiffness caused by inflammation while mediating your dog’s perception of pain.  This allows CBD to effectively combat arthritis, and keep your pup moving around happy and pain-free!
^ McLaren JA, Silins E, Hutchinson D, Mattick RP, Hall W (January 2010). "Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies". The International Journal on Drug Policy. 21 (1): 10–9. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.09.001. PMID 19783132. The contentious issue of whether cannabis use can cause serious psychotic disorders that would not otherwise have occurred cannot be answered based on the existing data
Our original pet CBD formula is infused with bacon flavored CBD rich hemp oil that your pets will love! CBD oil for pets is 100% natural and safe to consume as it has gone through extensive lab tests. Medix is a one stop destination when it comes to CBD oil for pets! What sets us apart from the competition is our dedication to quality and exceeding our customer’s expectations.
The plant is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent. Some strains have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (a cannabinoid), the strength of which is enhanced by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant.[8]
If you think that your dog might benefit from CBD oil and it is legal for use in your area, give your vet a call or contact a holistic veterinarian. Although some vets are reluctant to recommend CBD treatment, many more are seeing the undeniable benefits of CBD and will approve its use when appropriate. Make sure to consult with a professional either way, and follow safe dosage administration when giving CBD to dogs.
Marijuana, also called pot, weed, ganja, mary jane, and a host of other nicknames, is made from the Cannabis plant, which has three species: Cannabis sativa; Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. The flowering plant, which can grow to 16 feet (5 meters) high, likely originated in the Central Asian steppe, near the Altai or Tian Shian Mountains, and was first cultivated in China and India, according to "Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Potential," (Routledge, 2002).
“Geotextiles” or “agricultural textiles” include (1) ground-retaining, biodegradable matting designed to prevent soil erosion, especially to stabilize new plantings while they develop root systems along steep highway banks to prevent soil slippage (Fig. 32); and (2) ground-covers designed to reduce weeds in planting beds (in the manner of plastic mulch). At present the main materials used are polymeric (polythene, spun-blown polypropylene) and some glass fiber and natural fibers. Both woven and non-woven fibers can be applied to geotextiles; woven and knitted materials are stronger and the open structure may be advantageous (e.g. in allowing plants to grow through), but non-wovens are cheaper and better at suppressing weeds. Flax and hemp fibers exposed to water and soil have been claimed to disintegrate rapidly over the course of a few months, which would make them unacceptable for products that need to have long-term stability when exposed to water and oil. Coco (coir) fiber has been said to be much more suitable, due to higher lignin content (40%–50%, compared to 2%–5% in bast fibers); these are much cheaper than flax and hemp fibers (Karus et al. 2000). However, this analysis does not do justice to the developing hemp geotextile market. Production of hemp erosion control mats is continuing in both Europe and Canada. Given the reputation for rot resistance of hemp canvas and rope, it seems probable that ground matting is a legitimate use. Moreover, the ability to last outdoors for many years is frequently undesirable in geotextiles. For example, the widespread current use of plastic netting to reinforce grass sod is quite objectionable, the plastic persisting for many years and interfering with lawn care. Related to geotextile applications is the possibility of using hemp fiber as a planting substrate (biodegradable pots and blocks for plants), and as biodegradable twine to replace plastic ties used to attach plants to supporting poles. Still another consideration is the “green ideal” of producing locally for local needs; by this credo, hemp is preferable in temperate regions to the use of tropical fibers, which need to be imported.
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