Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured. Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).
μ-Opioid receptor agonists (opioids) (e.g., morphine, heroin, hydrocodone, oxycodone, opium, kratom) α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) AMPA receptor antagonists (e.g., perampanel) CB1 receptor agonists (cannabinoids) (e.g., THC, cannabis) Dopamine receptor agonists (e.g., levodopa) Dopamine releasing agents (e.g., amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, mephedrone) Dopamine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., cocaine, methylphenidate) GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carbamates, ethanol (alcohol) (alcoholic drink), inhalants, nonbenzodiazepines, quinazolinones) GHB (sodium oxybate) and analogues Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) (e.g., dexamethasone, prednisone) nACh receptor agonists (e.g., nicotine, tobacco, arecoline, areca nut) Nitric oxide prodrugs (e.g., alkyl nitrites (poppers)) NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., DXM, ketamine, methoxetamine, nitrous oxide, phencyclidine, inhalants) Orexin receptor antagonists (e.g., suvorexant)
Even as the research proceeds, thousands of people are using CBD as medicine. A British pharmaceutical company, GW Pharma, has developed two CBD drugs: Sativex, which contains a 1-to-1 ratio of CBD and THC, and Epidiolex, which is pure CBD. The former is prescribed for the painful muscle spasms that occur in multiple sclerosis, while the latter is aimed at childhood seizures. Sativex is not available in the United States, but it is approved in 29 other countries, including Canada, England and Israel.

The CBD topicals for sale come in many different preparations. Green Roads World offers independent lab testing so that customers know exactly what they are purchasing. Everything from our CBD topical cream to our CBD oil has been professionally tested. Each container of CBD Pain Cream has 150 mg of CBD and a menthol infusion. It can be applied every four to six hours as needed. The CBD in all of Green Roads World products is obtained using a CO2 extraction. This utilizes CO2 that has been captured as a liquid state to produce a broad spectrum CBD solution. This extraction method is very clean, efficient and free of contaminants. If a customer wishes to buy CBD cream, they can order online or find Green Road’s products in over 5000 retail locations. Green Roads World offers resources for CBD education and a friendly customer service team to answer any customer questions.
^ Gobbi, Gabriella; Atkin, Tobias; Zytynski, Tomasz; Wang, Shouao; Askari, Sorayya; Boruff, Jill; Ware, Mark; Marmorstein, Naomi; Cipriani, Andrea; Dendukuri, Nandini; Mayo, Nancy (13 February 2019). "Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Risk of Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidality in Young Adulthood". JAMA Psychiatry. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4500. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
You want to make sure that your pet has only the best, and that’s why we make it so easy and convenient to shop for dogs and other products through the American Hemp Oil website or on the phone with one of our helpful representatives. Your order will be shipped right to your front door, so your pet can get back to feeling better as soon as possible.
Cannabis for industrial uses is valuable in tens of thousands of commercial products, especially as fibre[107] ranging from paper, cordage, construction material and textiles in general, to clothing. Hemp is stronger and longer-lasting than cotton. It also is a useful source of foodstuffs (hemp milk, hemp seed, hemp oil) and biofuels. Hemp has been used by many civilizations, from China to Europe (and later North America) during the last 12,000 years.[107][108] In modern times novel applications and improvements have been explored with modest commercial success.[109][110]
Research showed the promising ability of the CBD or cannabidiol compound to have many health benefits for pets. There are three CBD products to give your pets such as CBD oil, capsules and CBD treats. CBD oil is the fastest product to take effect. However, this product has a strong taste, and many dogs are sensitive and picky. CBD oil will not be sufficient. Hence, dog owners use dog treats to trick their pets into consuming the CBD compound.
Jackson Leyden had always been a healthy kid; he practiced taekwondo, and he played lacrosse and baseball. But in 2011, a few months after his eighth birthday, he began having seizures several times a day. Many were brief, a half-minute of staring into space, but he also had severe episodes in which he would collapse, sometimes injuring himself. Over the next two years, he was hospitalized about 50 times, and he missed much of fourth and fifth grade.
Several of the cannabinoids are reputed to have medicinal potential: THC for glaucoma, spasticity from spinal injury or multiple sclerosis, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and asthma; CBD for some psychological problems. The Netherlands firm HortaPharm developed strains of Cannabis rich in particular cannabinoids. The British firm G.W. Pharmaceuticals acquired proprietary access to these for medicinal purposes, and is developing medicinal marijuana. In the US, NIH (National Institute of Health) has a program of research into medicinal marijuana, and has supplied a handful of individuals for years with maintenance samples for medical usage. The American Drug Enforcement Administration is hostile to the medicinal use of Cannabis, and for decades research on medicinal properties of Cannabis in the US has been in an extremely inhospitable climate, except for projects and researchers concerned with curbing drug abuse. Synthetic preparations of THC—dronabinol (Marinol®) and nabilone (Cesamet®)—are permitted in some cases, but are expensive and widely considered to be less effective than simply smoking preparations of marijuana. Relatively little material needs to be cultivated for medicinal purposes (Small 1971), although security considerations considerably inflate costs. The potential as a “new crop” for medicinal cannabinoid uses is therefore limited. However, the added-value potential in the form of proprietary drug derivatives and drug-delivery systems is huge. The medicinal efficacy of Cannabis is extremely controversial, and regrettably is often confounded with the issue of balancing harm and liberty concerning the proscriptions against recreational use of marijuana. This paper is principally concerned with the industrial uses of Cannabis. In this context, the chief significance of medicinal Cannabis is that, like the issue of recreational use, it has made it very difficult to rationally consider the development of industrial hemp in North America for purposes that everyone should agree are not harmful.

Many dog owners are already making their dog treat. They personalize it according to their pet’s likes and favorites. Pet owners can also infuse the CBD compound into their homemade cbd treats for dogs. In this way, their dogs will enjoy their food while ingesting the cannabidiol compound. Homemade CBD treats are made by merely adding CBD oil supplements to your dog treat recipe. Each 1-ounce bottle of CBD oil supplement contains 100 mg of CBD while a container of 2-ounce includes 500 mg of CBD. Another good thing about making homemade CBD dog treat is that the dosage of CBD compound given to your dog is controlled and regulated. In that way, you can track his consumption, and you can adjust the dosage according to the effect of the dog treat to your dog.


It was in early 2014 that my veterinarian friend first recommended I look into CBD oil for dogs. My oldest dog was suffering from arthritis and my middle dog had recently begun suffering from severe anxiety any time I walked toward the door.  The CBD oil did wonders for both my dogs. Since then, I’ve been a strong advocate for CBD Treats and Oil for Dogs.
Great pain reliever! The muscles surrounding my right hip get very tense and tight, causing me pain when I walk or sleep on it. Stretching, massage, and OTC pills only provide minimal and short lasting relief. So my boss bought me the intensive cream and the relief has lasted hours! You have to put a generous amount on the troubled area but it works like a charm! I’m so glad CBD is finally legal in a Texas.
Ingredients: Aqua/Water/Eau, Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil, Stearic Acid, Glycerin, Cyclopentasiloxane, Dimethicone, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Cannabis Sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil, Tocopheryl Acetate, Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil, Panthenol, Equisetum Arvense (Horsetail) Extract, Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Rosa Canina (Rose Hip) Fruit Extract, Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Extract, Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (Lemongrass) Extract, Cetyl Alcohol, Glyceryl Stearate, PEG-100 Stearate, Carbomer, Sodium Hydroxide, Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol, Ocimum Basilicum (Basil) Oil, Melaleuca Viridiflora Leaf Oil, Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Oil, Pinus Sylvestris Oil, Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Oil, Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Oil, Cedrus Atlantica Wood Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Menthol, Hemp Extract
As more people start paying attention to hemp, more facts are shared to demonstrate the power of this plant—hence why it’s often called the “Miracle Crop.” What has really been highlighted is the hemp seed’s nutritional benefits and its fiber’s durability. Hemp has been known to have over 25,000 applications. The key benefit of hemp is that it is such a sustainable and eco-friendly crop as well as being so useful. Hemp will be a key ingredient as we fight global warming and climate change.
Schizophrenia. Research on the use of cannabidiol for psychotic symptoms in people with schizophrenia is conflicting. Some early research suggests that taking cannabidiol four times daily for 4 weeks improves psychotic symptoms and might be as effective as the antipsychotic medication amisulpride. However, other early research suggests that taking cannabidiol for 14 days is not beneficial. The conflicting results might be related to the cannabidiol dose used and duration of treatment.

“In view of the proliferation of products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived substances, the FDA will advance new steps to better define our public health obligations in this area,” the release said. “We’ll also continue to closely scrutinize products that could pose risks to consumers. Where we believe consumers are being put at risk, the FDA will warn consumers and take enforcement actions.”
Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017.[52] Similar to energy drinks and protein bars which may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance.[53] In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none.[54] Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning letters from the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims.[55] In February 2019, the New York City Department of Health announced plans to fine restaurants that sell food or drinks containing CBD, beginning in October 2019.[56]
Carbon dioxide is passed through the plant material at a very specific temperature and pressure. Carbon dioxide, which is normally a gas at (or above) room temperature, can be pressurized until it becomes so dense that it takes on some of the properties of a liquid while still maintaining the fluid dynamics of a gas. In this state, CO2 is known as a supercritical fluid.
It is important to note that the federal government still considers cannabis a dangerous drug and that the illegal distribution and sale of marijuana is a serious crime. Under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), marijuana is still considered a Schedule 1 drug. Cultivation and distribution of marijuana are felonies; possession for personal use is a misdemeanor; possession of “paraphernalia” is also illegal. Cultivating 100 plants or more carries a mandatory minimum sentence of five years according to federal statutes.
Touted as a “superfood” containing a highly concentrated balance of proteins (less than soybeans, but much higher than wheat, oats, rye, corn, or barley), hemp seeds contain a balanced 1:3 ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids (“essential” meaning your body can’t produce it, so it has to come from an outside source). This amounts to more than any fish and most fish oil supplements. They also offer super omega-3 stearidonic acid and super omega-6-gamma-linolenic acid (which the North American diet seriously lacks). Between these compounds, you get reduced inflammation, improved brain function, and lowered blood pressure, cholesterol, stroke, and heart disease risk, as well as increased energy and potential weight loss.
Several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in the advanced stages of illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. Dronabinol (tetrahydrocannabinol) has been available by prescription for more than a decade in the USA. Other therapeutic uses of cannabinoids are being demonstrated by controlled studies, including treatment of asthma and glaucoma, as an antidepressant, appetite stimulant, anticonvulsant and anti-spasmodic, research in this area should continue. For example, more basic research on the central and peripheral mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal function may improve the ability to alleviate nausea and emesis. More research is needed on the basic neuropharmacology of THC and other cannabinoids so that better therapeutic agents can be found.
Our reviews also include the ingredients and a description of the scent and texture of each CBD topical. We tried to remain neutral in our descriptions of each product, since each consumer’s experience is subjective. These are all high-quality CBD creams, balms and salves, but you may find you prefer one scent over another. You might love or hate menthol. Some people prefer a light texture, while other buyers are looking for CBD topicals to use in a massage.

I think being safe to eat is a moot point. These are topical products. I don’t think anybody is buying to eat them. It’s just a marketing tactic. In regards to the chapsticks, unless you were trying to literally eat the chapstick I think whatever negligible amount may make it past your lips and into your mouth, would certainly not be a health concern from any of these products. What concerns me more is there is zero efficacy with all of these products. Do they just decide over breakfast how much CBD needs to be added for the dosage to work? It’s ridiculous that they are marketing it as safe to eat, and people are buying into that bs and providing no clinical studies or research at all. Just my 2 cents
Jackson Leyden had always been a healthy kid; he practiced taekwondo, and he played lacrosse and baseball. But in 2011, a few months after his eighth birthday, he began having seizures several times a day. Many were brief, a half-minute of staring into space, but he also had severe episodes in which he would collapse, sometimes injuring himself. Over the next two years, he was hospitalized about 50 times, and he missed much of fourth and fifth grade.

Phytocannabinoids are the herbal, natural and classical cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. The glandular structure called the trichomes is where the concentrated viscous resin of the plant is found. There are over 60 cannabinoids that have been isolated from the plant. Tetrahydracannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabinol (CBN) are the most prevalent ones and have also been the most studied. Cannabidiol (CBD) accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. It has been widely reported that CBD offers the greatest possible benefits of any of the extracts found in the plant. CBD can also be derived from hemp. Hemp and cannabis both contain large amounts of natural CBD, but hemp is naturally low in THC; thus, making it easier for manufacturers to create high CBD-infused products with low to non-existent THC levels. Since THC is (mostly) still illegal in the United States, most CBD items we carry are derived from hemp. Each CBD product varies in the amount of CBD and THC levels found in the product. No items we carry are over the legal limit of THC levels, which is 0.3%, according to U.S. Federal Law.

Cannabinoids are a class of compounds that interact with receptors throughout your body. CBD is just one of dozens of cannabinoids found in cannabis, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the one responsible for marijuana’s famous high. Medical cannabis is technically any cannabis product used for medicinal purposes, and these can contain THC or CBD or both, said Nick Jikomes, a neuroscientist at Leafly, a website that provides information about legal cannabis. “A common mistake people make is to think that CBD is ‘the medical cannabinoid’ and THC is ‘the recreational cannabinoid.’” That’s inaccurate, he said, because THC is a potent anti-inflammatory and can be helpful for pain.
Scientific and clinical studies indicate that CBD could be effective in easing symptoms of a wide range of difficult-to-control conditions, including: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, PTSD, epilepsy, antibiotic-resistant infections and neurological disorders. CBD has demonstrated neuroprotective effects, and its anti-cancer potential is currently being explored at several academic research centers in the U.S. and other countries.
Some users may experience an episode of acute psychosis, which usually abates after six hours, but in rare instances, heavy users may find the symptoms continuing for many days.[53] A reduced quality of life is associated with heavy cannabis use, although the relationship is inconsistent and weaker than for tobacco and other substances.[54] It is unclear, however, if the relationship is cause and effect.[54]
Absolutely free Stop Smoking Services have been demonstrated to roughly triple the probability of success in comparison to going cold turkey alone. Speak to your physician or pharmacist, see the NHS Smokefree website or call the Helpline to obtain what’s going to do the job for you. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke are accountable for at least 480,000 deaths annually in the USA, as stated by the American Lung Association.
Hemp seeds have an attractive nutty taste, and are now incorporated into many food preparations (Fig. 34), often mimicking familiar foods. Those sold in North America include nutritional (granola-type) or snack bars, “nut butters” and other spreads, bread, pretzels, cookies, yogurts, pancakes, porridge, fruit crumble, frozen dessert (“ice cream”), pasta, burgers, pizza, salt substitute, salad dressings, mayonnaise, “cheese,” and beverages (“milk,” “lemonade,” “beer,” “wine,” “coffee nog”). Hemp seed is often found canned or vacuum-packed (Fig. 35). Alcoholic beverages made with hemp utilize hempseed as a flavorant. Hemp food products currently have a niche market, based particularly on natural food and specialty food outlets.
The psychoactive effects of cannabis are known to have a triphasic nature. Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol. Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking, introspection and metacognition have been reported among cases of anxiety and paranoia.[94] Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-OH-THC, a psychoactive metabolite of THC produced in the liver.
To get the best cbd oil for vaping, it matters that you are aware and understand what CBD is for and why people use it. Recently, CBD has gained recognition because of its miraculous effects when it comes to treating the symptoms of epilepsy. More and more people are experiencing the benefits that CBD offers and even scientific experts are convinced that CBD has a lot more to offer.
^ Jump up to: a b Deitch, Robert (2003). Hemp: American History Revisited: The Plant with a Divided History. Algora Publishing. pp. 4–26. ISBN 9780875862262. Retrieved 2013-11-16. Cannabis is ... a plant that played an important role in colonial America's prosperous economy and remained a valuable commercial commodity up until the Second World War.
Keep in mind that CBD levels may vary from crop to crop—even from plant to plant. However, below are some strains that have been bred to contain higher CBD levels, so they might be a good place to start. Check the map on their strain page to see if these are sold at a dispensary near you. We also recommend checking with dispensaries about the specifics of their strains’ CBD levels. It’s always a good idea to purchase only lab-tested products that clearly state the CBD/THC levels so you know what kind of experience to expect.
One of the reasons the THC dosage should be administered with an even lighter hand is because dogs have a more complex endocannabinoid system as humans, with many more receptors. They feel the effects of THC much stronger than we do. Although infused dog treats are available at most dispensaries, pet-owners who keep cannabis tincture around can use that as well, just in smaller amounts. There are options like a whole plant-extract formula by Luminous Botanicals at Oregon dispensaries, or this GrönCBD tincture–an example of safe, synthetic CBD made from tree lichen. To achieve these small doses, you can use a water syringe to separate the proper sized dose and then some water, so it can be squirted quickly and directly into your pet’s mouth.

Essential (volatile) oil in hemp is quite different from hempseed oil. Examples of commercial essential oil product products are shown in Fig. 42. The essential oil is a mixture of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid-like compounds that are manufactured in the same epidermal glands in which the resin of Cannabis is synthesized (Meier and Mediavilla 1998). Yields are very small—about 10 L/ha (Mediavilla and Steinemann 1997), so essential oil of C. sativa is expensive, and today is simply a novelty. Essential oil of different strains varies considerably in odor, and this may have economic importance in imparting a scent to cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, creams, oils, perfumes, and foodstuffs. Switzerland has been a center for the production of essential oil for the commercial market. Narcotic strains tend to be more attractive in odor than fiber strains, and because they produce much higher numbers of flowers than fiber strains, and the (female) floral parts provide most of the essential oil, narcotic strains are naturally adapted to essential oil production. Switzerland has permitted strains with higher THC content to be grown than is allowed in other parts of the world, giving the country an advantage with respect to the essential oil market. However, essential oil in the marketplace has often been produced from low-THC Cannabis, and the THC content of essential oil obtained by steam distillation can be quite low, producing a product satisfying the needs for very low THC levels in food and other commercial goods. The composition of extracted essential oil is quite different from the volatiles released around the fresh plant (particularly limonene and alpha-pinene), so that a pleasant odor of the living plant is not necessarily indicative of a pleasant-smelling essential oil. Essential oil has been produced in Canada by Gen-X Research Inc., Regina. The world market for hemp essential oil is very limited at present, and probably also has limited growth potential.
Would I say that CBD oil has fundamentally changed my life? No. But per the Charlotte's Web website, this is the typical first experience. "Anyone who has ever started a new vitamin or supplement routine knows the short answer to how long it takes to kick in is—'it depends,'" reads the article on what to expect from hemp oil. "For many newcomers, they're not sure what to imagine, or some anticipate a huge change right away. For most of us, though, dietary supplements take time."
Hemp Oil that contains CBD came from the extract of the stalks and seeds of the hemp plant. Cannabidiol is extracted, and hemp oil is created. The cannabinoids from the hemp oil with cbd interacts with the natural cannabinoids of the body in the endocannabinoid system which is part of the nervous system. It helps in the processes of our body like reflexes, movement, immunisation, as well as emotions. This does not contain THC or tetrahydrocannabinol which can give you that euphoric high. Hemp oil with CBD products are not addictive, so it is safe to use.

Fig. 6. ‘Finola,’ the first cultivar of Cannabis sativa bred exclusively for grain. (Courtesy of the breeder, J.C. Callaway, Univ. Kuopio, Finland.) Fig. 7. ‘Anka,’ the first registered North American bred cultivar of Cannabis sativa. This variety is best suited for grain production. (Courtesy of the breeder, P. Dragla, and of the Industrial Hemp Seed Development Company, Chatham, Ontario.)

American industrialists led by newspaper mogul William Randolph Hearst (who owned vast timberlands) and DuPont executives, who’d begun processing petroleum and wood for plastics, became disgruntled by the way hemp cut into their market shares. A 1994 Vegetarian Times article2 describes the group’s devastatingly successful tactics for twisting the public’s perception of hemp:
An important factor is the quality and purity of our CBD. We chose the Kentucky farm collective because of the quality of the hemp plants being grown under the Federal Farm Bill and in conjunction with the Kentucky Agricultural Department Hemp Pilot Program. There are very specific guidelines for planting, growing and the processing of the CBD isolate. As a result, the quality of the CBD produced from the whole plant is some of the purest available. We take great pride in providing our clients with an extremely pure, clean and high-quality product to those who desire CBD. Each and every product that leaves the facility is third-party tested to ensure consistency and quality.

Because these receptors are found in almost every part of our body and essentially regulate our entire well-being. Some of these receptors include the Serotonin receptor (regulates our mood and how we feel), the Adenosine receptor (regulates how we respond to stress), and the Vanilloid receptor (helps regulate pain). The regulation of these receptors alone is vital to not only our well-being but our dogs as well. This is how CBD is able to provide your dog with natural relief to conditions such as:
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes. The major differences between the two types of plants are the appearance, and the amount of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically.[59][61] Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for medicinal or recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.[62]
Great pain reliever! The muscles surrounding my right hip get very tense and tight, causing me pain when I walk or sleep on it. Stretching, massage, and OTC pills only provide minimal and short lasting relief. So my boss bought me the intensive cream and the relief has lasted hours! You have to put a generous amount on the troubled area but it works like a charm! I’m so glad CBD is finally legal in a Texas.

Zammit and colleagues (2002) reported a 27-year follow-up of the Swedish cohort study. This study improved on the earlier study in the following ways: the psychiatric register provided more complete coverage of cases diagnosed with schizophrenia; and there was better statistical control of more potentially confounding variables, including other drug use, IQ, known risk factors for schizophrenia and social integration. Cannabis use at baseline predicted a dose–response relationship between the frequency of cannabis use at age 18 and the risk of schizophrenia during the follow-up. The relationship persisted after statistically controlling for the effects of other drug use and other potential confounding factors, including a history of psychiatric symptoms at baseline. They estimated that 13 percent of cases of schizophrenia could be averted if all cannabis use were prevented.

So I’d like to buy from your #1 pick King Kanine, but when I visit their site and a) it loads super slow, b) there is zero information on which dosage (75mg, 100mg, or 300mg) to get based on my dog size/weight (the only thing I could find was screenshots of the dosage charts on the product description page, but that seems to apply to all dog weights, so not very helpful). MediPets (your #2 pick), on the other hand, clearly explains this, so I went with them.


There are practical, if cruder alternatives to separate the long fiber for high-quality textile production, but in fact such techniques are used mostly for non-textile applications. This involves production of “whole fibers” (i.e. harvesting both the long fibers from the cortex and the shorter fibers from throughout the stem), and technologies that utilize shortened hemp fibers. This approach is currently dominant in western Europe and Canada, and commences with field dew retting (typically 2–3 weeks). A principal limitation is climatic—the local environment should be suitably but not excessively moist at the close of the harvest season. Once stalks are retted, dried, and baled, they are processed to extract the fiber. In traditional hemp processing, the long fiber was separated from the internal woody hurds in two steps, breaking (stalks were crushed under rollers that broke the woody core into short pieces, some of which were separated) and scutching (the remaining hurds, short fibers (“tow”) and long fibers (“line fiber, ” “long-line fiber”) were separated). A single, relatively expensive machine called a decorticator can do these two steps as one. In general in the EU and Canada, fibers are not separated into tow and line fibers, but are left as “whole fiber.” In western Europe, the fiber is often “cottonized,” i.e. chopped into short segments the size of cotton and flax fiber, so that the fibers can be processed on flax processing machinery, which is very much better developed than such machinery is for hemp. In North America the use of hemp for production of even crude textiles is marginal. Accordingly, the chief current fiber usages of North American, indeed of European hemp, are non-textile.
It is important to note that the federal government still considers cannabis a dangerous drug and that the illegal distribution and sale of marijuana is a serious crime. Under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), marijuana is still considered a Schedule 1 drug. Cultivation and distribution of marijuana are felonies; possession for personal use is a misdemeanor; possession of “paraphernalia” is also illegal. Cultivating 100 plants or more carries a mandatory minimum sentence of five years according to federal statutes.
What makes CBD so appealing is that it’s non-intoxicating, so it won’t get you high, though it “is technically psychoactive, because it can influence things like anxiety,” Jikomes said. Although much of the marketing blitz around CBD centers on the fact that you can take it without getting stoned, there isn’t much research looking at the effects of CBD when used in isolation, with a couple of exceptions. One is the use of CBD to treat seizures: CBD is the active ingredient in the only cannabis product that the Food and Drug Administration has signed off on — a drug called Epidiolex, which is approved for treating two rare forms of epilepsy. Animal models and a few human studies suggest that CBD can help with anxiety, but those are the only conditions with much research on CBD in isolation.
I strongly agree they really are greedy and money hungry. Isn’t it always funny how the big ones fall sooner or later? The government can’t have everything, there are just some things that belong to the people. Medicine plants in general have been around since the start of creation, and it looks like we’re just finding out which ones they are. Our forefathers know which ones they were and they knew how to use them but it’s been a forgotten skill some generations have forgotten since modern medicine took over. That’s not right. I saw some articles where the government was going to try to once again outlaw hemp and cannabis. I say if you really want some before it’s outlawed, grab up as much as you can and hide it somewhere good where no one but you can ever find it. I would highly recommend putting it in an airtight container with as many other airtight layers around it as possible. That way, it will never be found by anyone who’s not supposed to find it. The best advantage is to have enough handy to take care of yourself for life while everyone not in on ditching big Pharma is dying. If hamper and cannabis are outlawed, only the elite will be the ones still standing in the end
Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes. The major differences between the two types of plants are the appearance, and the amount of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically.[59][61] Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for medicinal or recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.[62]
Today, cannabis use no longer caters to the hippies. Marijuana marketing is now so vast that entire brands and product lines have been designed to appeal to women, seniors, men, the high-end market, and everything in between. Once illicit, once only sourced from the black market, now legal in a majority of US states, yet remains a federally illegal substance: no matter which way you choose to look at it, cannabis is now mainstream.
A panellized system of hemp-lime panels for use in building construction is currently under test in a European Union-funded research collaboration led by the University of Bath. The panels are being designed to assure high-quality construction, rapid on-site erection, optimal hygrothermal performance from day one, and energy- and resource-efficient buildings. The 36-month-long work programme aims to refine product and manufacturing protocols, produce data for certification and marketing, warranty, insurance cover, and availability of finance. It also includes the development of markets in Britain, France, and Spain.[35]
Experimental studies have also been conducted in order to assess the effect of cannabis use on schizophrenia. D’Souza et al. (2004) administered varying levels of the main ingredient in cannabis to healthy individuals with a history of cannabis exposure (but not abuse) and found that the subjects in the study displayed both positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia, although all symptoms disappeared by about 3 h. D’Souza et al. (2005) conducted a follow-up study in which they followed the same protocol, but with clinically stable schizophrenia patients. Again, they found brief increases in positive symptoms, even if the patients were already taking antipsychotics.
There is a general inverse relationship in the resin of Cannabis between the amounts of THC present and the amount of the other principal cannabinoid, CBD. Whereas most drug strains contain primarily THC and little or no CBD, fiber and oilseed strains primarily contain CBD and very little THC. CBD can be converted to THC by acid catalyzed cyclization, and so could serve as a starting material for manufacturing THC. In theory, therefore, low-THC cultivars do not completely solve the problem of drug abuse potential. In practice, however, the illicit drug trade has access to easier methods of synthesizing THC or its analogues than by first extracting CBD from non-drug hemp strains.
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The earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC.[32] Since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions. The possession, use, and sale of cannabis is illegal in most countries of the world.[33][34] Medical cannabis refers to the physician-recommended use of cannabis, which takes place in Canada, Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, and 33 U.S. states.[35][36] In September 2018, cannabis was legalized in South Africa[37] while Canada legalized recreational use of cannabis in October 2018.[38]
Germplasm for the improvement of hemp is vital for the future of the industry in North America. However, there are no publicly available germplasm banks housing C. sativa in North America. The hundreds of seed collections acquired for Small’s studies (reviewed in Small 1979) were destroyed in 1980 because Canadian government policy at that time envisioned no possibility that hemp would ever be developed as a legitimate crop. An inquiry regarding the 56 United States Department of Agriculture hemp germplasm collections supplied to and grown by Small and Beckstead (1973) resulted in the reply that there are no remaining hemp collections in USDA germplasm holdings, and indeed that were such to be found they would have to be destroyed. While hemp has been and still is cultivated in Asia and South America, it is basically in Europe that germplasm banks have made efforts to preserve hemp seeds. The Vavilov Institute of Plant Research in St. Petersburg, Russia has by far the largest germplasm collection of hemp of any public gene bank, with about 500 collections. Detailed information on the majority of hemp accessions of the Vavilov Institute can be found in Anon. (1975). Budgetary problems in Russia have endangered the survival of this invaluable collection, and every effort needs to be made to find new funding to preserve it. Maintenance and seed generation issues for the Vavilov hemp germplasm collection are discussed in a number of articles in the Journal of the International Hemp Association (Clarke 1998b; Lemeshev et al. 1993, 1994). The Gatersleben gene bank of Germany, the 2nd largest public gene bank in Europe, has a much smaller Cannabis collection, with less than 40 accessions (detailed information on the hemp accessions of the Gatersleben gene bank are available at fox-serv.ipk-gatersleben.de/). Because hemp is regaining its ancient status as an important crop, a number of private germplasm collections have been assembled for the breeding of cultivars as commercial ventures (de Meijer and van Soest 1992; de Meijer 1998), and of course these are available only on a restricted basis, if at all.
Hemp paper is high-priced for several reasons. Economies of scale are such that the supply of hemp is minute compared to the supply of wood fiber. Hemp processing requires non-wood-based processing facilities. Hemp paper is typically made only from bast fibers, which require separation from the hurds, thereby increasing costs. This represents less than 50% of the possible fiber yield of the plant, and future technologies that pulp the whole stalks could decrease costs substantially. Hemp is harvested once a year, so that it needs to be stored to feed mills throughout the year. Hemp stalks are very bulky, requiring much handling and storage. Transportation costs are also very much higher for hemp stalks than for wood chips. Waste straw is widely available from cereals and other crops, and although generally not nearly as desirable as hemp, can produce bulk pulp far more cheaply than can be made from hemp. In addition to agricultural wastes, there are vast quantities of scrub trees, especially poplar, in northern areas, that can supply large amounts of low-quality wood fiber extremely cheaply. Moreover, in northern areas fast-growing poplars and willows can be grown, and such agro-forestry can be very productive and environmentally benign. And, directly or indirectly, the lumber/paper industry receives subsidies and/or supports, which is most unlikely for hemp.

“Specialty pulp” is the most important component of the hemp industry of the EU, and is expected to remain its core market for the foreseeable future. The most important specialty pulp products made from hemp are cigarette paper (Fig. 16), bank notes, technical filters, and hygiene products. Other uses include art papers and tea bags. Several of these applications take advantage of hemp’s high tear and wet strength. This is considered to be a highly stable, high-priced niche market in Europe, where hemp has an 87% market share of the “specialty pulp” sector (Karus et al. 2000). In Europe, decortication/refining machines are available that can produce 10 t/hour of hemp fiber suitable for such pulp use. North American capacity for hemp pulp production and value-added processing is much more limited than that of Europe, and this industry is negligible in North America.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of many cannabinoid molecules produced by cannabis, second only to THC in abundance. These plant-derived cannabinoids, or phytocannabinoids (phyto = plant in Greek), are characterized by their ability to act on the cannabinoid receptors that are part of our endocannabinoid system. While THC is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis and has certain medical uses, CBD stands out because it is both non-intoxicating and displays a broad range of potential medical applications including helping with anxiety, inflammation, pain, and seizures. These makes CBD an attractive therapeutic compound.
CBD is an acronym for Cannabidiol (Can-a-bid-i-ol), a prominent naturally occurring class of molecules called cannabinoids found in the plant genus Cannabis Sativa L. CBD compirses up to 40% of the plant and is one of over 60 plus compounds found in cannabis. Of these compounds, CBD and THC are usually present in the highest concentrations, and are therefore the most recognized and studied. CBD is a non-psychoactive component of the plant that possesses a wide range of benefits and does not cause a high, unlike THC. Our bodies are made up of an endocannabinoid system and uses cannabinoids to maintain healthy cells and according to researchers, CBD may be the single most important cannabinoid ever discovered.
Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships, though the rope had to be protected by tarring, since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot, as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside.[44] Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname "Jack Tar". Hemp rope was phased out when manila rope, which does not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp, but is not related to hemp; it is abacá, a species of banana.
The Gateway Hypothesis states that cannabis use increases the probability of trying "harder" drugs. The hypothesis has been hotly debated as it is regarded by some as the primary rationale for the United States prohibition on cannabis use.[261][262] A Pew Research Center poll found that political opposition to marijuana use was significantly associated with concerns about health effects and whether legalization would increase marijuana use by children.[263]
The environment in which hemp and marijuana are grown is strikingly different. Hemp is grown closely together (as close as 4 inches apart) and are typically grown in large multi-acre plots. It can also grow in variety of climates and its growth cycle is 108-120 days. Unlike hemp, marijuana requires a carefully controlled, warm, and humid atmostphere for proper growth. Its growth cycle only 60-90 days. Medical cannabis also cannot be grown too close to each other. They are typically grown 6 feet apart. If, somehow, marijuana grows among (or close to) a hemp field, the hemp’s pollen would immediateately ruin the marijuana crop, diluting marijuana’s psychoactivity.
CBDMEDIC™ is the first and only family of topical medications that combines advanced science, active pharmaceutical ingredients (menthol and camphor) and CBD hemp extract Cannabis sativa L (THC-free and non-psychoactive) with the finest organic and natural ingredients. Our products are produced using advanced technology with a mission to provide fast, strong and long-lasting pain relief.
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