^ Jump up to: a b c Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J.; Rohrback, Brian G.; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel (22 May 2014). "Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Epilepsia. 55 (6): 791–802. doi:10.1111/epi.12631. PMC 4707667. PMID 24854329.
Have just had knee scope and my orthopedic doc had to smooth some bone down when he was in there because of osteoarthritis. Its been two weeks and he drew fluid because still swollen terribly. My daughter works at Earthbound and had been telling me about the CBD daily, so I tried it yesterday. What a glorious relief. Did not believe it would help and my knee/leg feels so much better AND most of the swelling went down overnite!!! Will be ready for PT with this jewel next week!!!!
Due to the influence of big pharma,the FDA has refused (until recently) to investigate the benefits of phytocannabinoid oil for humans or pets. We are not allowed to say or imply that phytocannabinoid has any medical benefits, however the 1st Amendment also protects our right to tell you about our experiences with phytocannabinoid helping our own pets, and the fact that there have been more than 1500 clinical studies regarding the effectiveness of phytocannabinoids.*The owners and staff of Innovet believe, but cannot legally claim or imply, that countless dogs and cats have used phytocannabinoid oils for many conditions.
Now researchers have turned to yeast to do something more improbable: manufacturing the cannabis compounds CBD and THC. By loading brewer’s yeast with genes from the cannabis plant, they’ve turned the miracle microbes into cannabinoid factories. It’s a clever scheme in a larger movement to methodically pick apart and recreate marijuana’s many compounds, to better understand the plant’s true potential.
In modern times, the Rastafari movement has embraced Cannabis as a sacrament.[125] Elders of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, a religious movement founded in the United States in 1975 with no ties to either Ethiopia or the Coptic Church, consider Cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ.[126] Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis is the Tree of Life.[127][128] Other organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat Cannabis as a sacrament are the THC Ministry,[129] Cantheism,[130] the Cannabis Assembly[131] and the Church of Cognizance. Rastafarians tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis use.
The world-leading producer of hemp is China, which produces more than 70% of the world output. France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe, Chile, and North Korea. Over 30 countries produce industrial hemp, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Greece,[68] Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Ukraine.[69][70]
Cannabis, especially the cannabinoid CBD, has also demonstrated its abilities as a powerful anti-convulsant. This property is what accounts for cannabis’ ability to reduce the severity and frequency of seizures, especially for people with epilepsy. In the United States, epilepsy is the most widely adopted qualifying condition for medical cannabis use, especially for children.

When THC is consumed, it binds to CB1 receptors in the brain, which is what causes users to get high, while still providing certain health benefits. But CBD does not directly bind to these receptors and instead indirectly interacts with the CB2 receptors that are found mainly in the immune system, though they (along with CB1 receptors) are also found throughout the body.

Recreational cannabis use centers around one chemical: the psychoactive cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Consuming this chemical induces euphoric and stimulating sensations commonly referred to as a “high.” For most marijuana users, these sensations are pleasurable and enjoyable. For some, however, THC can induce feelings of anxiety and paranoia, especially in large doses.


Breeding for low THC cultivars in Europe has been reviewed by Bócsa (1998), Bócsa and Karus (1998), and Virovets (1996). Some researchers have claimed to have produced essentially THC-free strains, although at present no commercial cultivar seems to be 100% free of THC. THC content has proven to be more easily reduced in monoecious than in dioecious varieties. It should be possible to select THC-free strains, and there has been speculation that genetic engineering could be helpful in this regard. As a strategic economic and political tactic, France has been attempting for several years to have the European Union (EU) adopt legislation forbidding the cultivation of industrial hemp cultivars with more than 0.1% THC, which would mean that primarily French varieties would have to be cultivated in Europe. However, the Canadian government has found that some French material has proven to be excessively high in THC.

From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's largest producer of hemp (3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine,[87] the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia, and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.[88][89]
Given its name, you might assume THCV shares psychoactive powers with its potent counterpart, THC. In reality, this cannabinoid is more like a cross between CBD and THC. From the former, it takes its modulating powers. Acting like THC “lite,” THCV like CBD can dampen the effects of a strong high. Yet at higher doses, THCV kicks into a psychoactive stimulant in its own right.

The CBD topicals for sale come in many different preparations. Green Roads World offers independent lab testing so that customers know exactly what they are purchasing. Everything from our CBD topical cream to our CBD oil has been professionally tested. Each container of CBD Pain Cream has 150 mg of CBD and a menthol infusion. It can be applied every four to six hours as needed. The CBD in all of Green Roads World products is obtained using a CO2 extraction. This utilizes CO2 that has been captured as a liquid state to produce a broad spectrum CBD solution. This extraction method is very clean, efficient and free of contaminants. If a customer wishes to buy CBD cream, they can order online or find Green Road’s products in over 5000 retail locations. Green Roads World offers resources for CBD education and a friendly customer service team to answer any customer questions.


Like many other pet-centric CBD products that have become available over the past year, Smart Hemp CBD products do not contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—so there is no risk of animals getting “high.” While there are still questions and concerns about the validity and legality of CBD use in veterinary medicine, a growing number of professionals and pet owners are becoming increasingly curious about how CBD can benefit a pet’s immune system and whether these products may be able to rival prescription medications. CBD products for cats and dogs are expected to be one of the biggest trends in pet care for 2019.
Hemp plants are varieties of Cannabis sativa L. Hemp is a dioecious plant, which means it can be separated into male and female plants. Hemp plants have served a wide variety of purposes for more than 10,000 years for fiber (from the plant’s stems) and protein (from seeds). Hemp fibers can be used to make countless household items, including paper, clothing, furnishing fabric, rope, food, and building materials.

Protein. Hemp seeds contain 25%–30% protein, with a reasonably complete amino acid spectrum. About two thirds of hempseed protein is edestin. All eight amino acids essential in the human diet are present, as well as others. Although the protein content is smaller than that of soybean, it is much higher than in grains like wheat, rye, maize, oat, and barley. As noted above, the oilcake remaining after oil is expressed from the seeds is a very nutritious feed supplement for livestock, but it can also be used for production of a high-protein flour.
Buying online is less reliable still because there’s no regulation or standardization. What you see on the label may not be what you are getting. A 2017 study in JAMA found that of the 84 CBD products researchers bought online, 43% had more CBD than indicated, while 26% had less, and some had unexpected THC. “There’s a 75% chance of getting a product where the CBD is mislabeled,” says Marcu, one of the study’s coauthors.
This pocket-sized salve is perfect for travel or for sports, when you need a quick fix for your sore joints and muscles. It is also infused with arnica, meadowsweet, elderflower, calendula, ginger, vitamin E, turmeric, and other nourishing skincare ingredients that provide anti-inflammatory benefits. It’s good to know ahead of time that this salve is extremely hard to apply—there’s a lot of beeswax in there, which makes it difficult to melt enough to rub into your skin. (There is also a handy Topical Roll-On version so that you don’t have to even use your fingers—the problem is, the roll-on formula is also made with beeswax. It’s been 65 degrees in New York City all week and I still can’t get the formula to melt in the roll-on. Nothing that placing the container in a bowl of hot water won’t solve, but it’s not up to general skincare standards.)
“The political implications of that scheduling, from a research perspective, are limiting,” explains Sutton. “To my knowledge, of the thousands of academic and research bodies in the United States and Canada whom would be equipped to perform agricultural or medical research on this unique species, only around 40 have actual research licenses to study the plant in a limited context.”
Great pain reliever! The muscles surrounding my right hip get very tense and tight, causing me pain when I walk or sleep on it. Stretching, massage, and OTC pills only provide minimal and short lasting relief. So my boss bought me the intensive cream and the relief has lasted hours! You have to put a generous amount on the troubled area but it works like a charm! I’m so glad CBD is finally legal in a Texas.

Medical cannabis for pets comes in different forms, such as CBD capsules, CBD oils, or treats and dog biscuits. CBD or Cannabidiol is a natural compound produced by the Cannabis or hemp plant. CBD possesses amazing healing properties due to its action on the endocannabinoid system, which is present throughout the body in all animals. When the endocannabinoid system is functioning optimally, the body is better able to preserve homeostasis or balance for enhanced health and wellness.


Technically speaking, its THC—the cannabinoid that gets you high—which is illicit. When you take a drug test, the aim is to detect THC in your body, not “cannabis.” If you possessed weed without any THC in it, technically you wouldn’t be in violation of the law. Because “weed” without THC has a different name: hemp. And the rules governing hemp are quite different from the restrictions placed on cannabis.


Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont's new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed[dubious – discuss] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success.[128][133][134][135][136][137][138][139] The company DuPont and many industrial historians dispute a link between nylon and hemp, nylon became immediately a scarce commodity.[clarification needed] Nylon had characteristics that could be used for toothbrushes (sold from 1938) and very thin nylon fiber could compete with silk and rayon in various textiles normally not produced from hemp fiber, such as very thin stockings for women.[132][140][141][142][143]
During the next few weeks your pet will be able to take more medicine without any demonstrable side effects. Medical cannabis in general, and CBD specifically, is not the answer for all pets. Some animals do better on it than others, just like people. For animals, the dosage must be adjusted to ensure that the tincture will be effective. When in doubt, err on the side of under-dosing because you can always slowly increase the dose and monitor the effect.
UNFORTUNATELY, WE ARE NOT ALLOWED TO TELL YOU! WE WISH WE COULD, NOT ONLY BECAUSE WE ARE INCREDIBLY PROUD OF OUR PRODUCTS, BUT ALSO BECAUSE WE GET EMAILS FROM PEOPLE ALL ACROSS THE COUNTRY TELLING US HOW GREEN ROADS HAS MADE A DIFFERENCE IN THEIR LIVES. HOWEVER, THE US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CURRENTLY PROHIBITS ALL MANUFACTURERS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS FROM MAKING ANY CLAIMS ABOUT THE ABILITY OF THEIR PRODUCTS TO TREAT SPECIFIC HEALTH CONDITIONS. HEALTH CLAIMS ARE ONLY PERMITTED WHERE APPROVED BY THE FDA AND BASED ON ACCEPTED CLINICAL TRIALS. BECAUSE CBD IS RELATIVELY NEW TO THE MARKET, THE LENGTHY CLINICAL TRIAL PERIOD IS STILL IN PROCESS.
The first example of the use of hempcrete was in 1986 in France with the renovation of the Maison de la Turquie in Nogent-sur-Seine by the innovator Charles Rasetti.[30] In the UK hemp lime was first used in 2000 for the construction of two test dwellings in Haverhill.[31] Designed by Modece Architects,[32] who pioneered hemp's use in UK construction, the hemp houses were monitored in comparison with other standard dwellings by BRE. Completed in 2009, the Renewable House is one of the most technologically advanced made from hemp-based materials.[33] The first US home made of hemp-based materials was completed in August 2010 in Asheville, North Carolina.[34]

Queensland has allowed industrial production under licence since 2002,[76] where the issuance is controlled under the Drugs Misuse Act 1986.[77] New South Wales now issues licences[78] under a law, the Hemp Industry Regulations Act 2008 (No 58), that came into effect as of 6 November 2008.[79] Most recently, South Australia legalized industrial hemp under South Australia’s Industrial Hemp Act 2017, which commenced on 12 November 2017.[80]
That same 2018 Farm Bill means you can now travel between states with legit CBD products. "Flying with CBD should pose no issues now," Parrish says. However, if you're traveling with a tincture, be mindful of TSA limits on how much liquid you can carry on an airplane, she adds. (You can also mail CBD products, just like "companies that comply with the Bill can ship their hemp-derived CBD products anywhere in the U.S.," Parrish notes.)
Multiple sclerosis (MS). A prescription-only nasal spray product (Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) containing both 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol has been shown to be effective for improving pain, muscle-tightness, and urination frequency in people with MS. This product is used in over 25 countries outside of the United States. But there is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis when it is used alone. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness, but not muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, mobility, or well-being and quality of life in patients with MS.
I can’t disagree more with attacking “Big Pharma” or Trump with regards to fixing this problem! Screw the political affiliations for now, let’s change the whole Schedule 1 nightmare. We’re steeped in technology and we have insanely archaic drug laws. Worse, our gov then pressures the countries we give money to (which is all of them) to follow suit by adopting our effed up way. Schedule 1 needs to be dismantled. The research can’t be done on anything listed with very few exceptions. There’s other Sched.1 drugs that need to be available for research by legitimate people, there’s lots of exciting research in psychedelics that’s stalled by archaic laws. That part might just require big pharma to help.
Cannatonic: A potent pain-reliever, Cannatonic hails from Spain and stands as one of the earliest cultivars to be bred for its high CBD content. This cultivar is a cross between MK Ultra and G13 Haze, and it helps relieves anxiety, muscle spasms, pain, and migraines while providing uplifting energy. Cannatonic tends to relax and loosen muscles without locking users to their couches.

To name just a few: Animal research and small-scale human studies have pointed to CBD's anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory properties, NPR reports. A study is underway to see how CBD helps patients with PTSD and alcohol use disorder, and another is exploring how CBD might help curb drug cravings in people with opioid addiction. Cannabinoids like CBD may also be effective at treating cancer-related side effects, according to the National Institutes of Health.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs and soy.[21] Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, and 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed.[22]
There are many ways to prepare cannabis for consumption. And while final marijuana products may come in many forms, each aims to provide rich concentrations of the terpenes, cannabinoids, and other desirable compounds the marijuana plant produces. From the simple process of drying and curing marijuana flowers, to the sophisticated chemistry of producing cannabis concentrates, here’s a guide to the most common forms of cannabis.
Multiple sclerosis (MS). A prescription-only nasal spray product (Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) containing both 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol has been shown to be effective for improving pain, muscle-tightness, and urination frequency in people with MS. This product is used in over 25 countries outside of the United States. But there is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis when it is used alone. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness, but not muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, mobility, or well-being and quality of life in patients with MS.

Recent European Commission proposals to change its subsidy regime for hemp contained the following negative evaluation of hemp seed: “The use of hemp seed ... would, however, even in the absence of THC, contribute towards making the narcotic use of cannabis acceptable... In this light, subsidy will be denied producers who are growing grain for use in human nutrition and cosmetics.”
Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive compound found in the Marijuana plant, has become a fast-growing topic due to the wide of array of medical benefits it provides for people around the world.  CBD can be used to provide relief for over fifty conditions including anxiety, depression, chronic pain, and more! If you or a loved one is experiencing any of these conditions, CBD may provide the relief they need. Included in those loved ones aren’t just the ones with two legs.
The reason so many people are interested in cannabis products that don’t make them high, proponents say, is that CBD helps with everything from pain and nausea to rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, Crohn’s disease, and dementia. CBD is anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, antibacterial, immunosuppressive, and more, says Joseph Cohen, D.O., a cannabis doctor in Boulder, CO.
That leaves those touting CBD’s effectiveness pointing primarily to research in mice and petri dishes. There, CBD (sometimes combined with small amounts of THC) has shown promise for helping pain, neurological conditions like anxiety and PTSD, and the immune system—and therefore potentially arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and more.

Of course, the #1 thing you’ll want to look out for when selecting CBD products for your pets is that the product actually contains CBD. It’s easy enough to label something as “hemp-infused” or “hemp-based”, but it’s another thing altogether to actually have the appropriate levels of cannabidiol present in order to initiate any sort of chemical/physiological change. Short of going into a whole thing about which brands and products are ‘legit’ and which are not, take a quick look at this list of FDA warning letters, which exposes a handful of companies for advertising their products as “CBD-containing”, when in fact they are not.
While CBD can be extracted from non-hemp varieties of the plant, hemp-derived CBD is less restricted by the government because of its inherently low levels of THC. CBD from hemp is legal for sale in most US states, while CBD products derived from non-hemp varieties can contain noticeable amounts of THC, and are therefore subject to stricter laws and regulations.
Until recent times, the cultivation of hemp primarily as an oilseed was largely unknown, except in Russia. Today, it is difficult to reconstruct the type of plant that was grown there as an oilseed, because such cultivation has essentially been abandoned. Oilseed hemp cultivars in the modern sense were not available until very recently, but some land races certainly were grown specifically for seeds in Russia. Dewey (1914) gave the following information: “The short oil-seed hemp with slender stems, about 30 inches high, bearing compact clusters of seeds and maturing in 60 to 90 days, is of little value for fiber production, but the experimental plants, grown from seed imported from Russia, indicate that it may be valuable as an oil-seed crop to be harvested and threshed in the same manner as oil-seed flax.” Most hemp oilseed in Europe is currently obtained from so-called “dual usage” plants (employed for harvest of both stem fiber and seeds, from the same plants). Of the European dual-usage cultivars, ‘Uniko B’ and ‘Fasamo’ are particularly suited to being grown as oilseeds. Very recently, cultivars have been bred specifically for oilseed production. These include ‘Finola,’ formerly known as ‘Fin-314’ (Fig. 6) and ‘Anka’ (Fig. 7), which are relatively short, little-branched, mature early in north-temperate regions, and are ideal for high-density planting and harvest with conventional equipment. Dewey (1914) noted that a Turkish narcotic type of land race called “Smyrna” was commonly used in the early 20th century in the US to produce birdseed, because (like most narcotic types of Cannabis) it is densely branched, producing many flowers, hence seeds. While oilseed land races in northern Russia would have been short, early-maturing plants in view of the short growing season, in more southern areas oilseed landraces likely had moderate height, and were spaced more widely to allow abundant branching and seed production to develop. Until Canada replaced China in 1998 as a source of imported seeds for the US, most seeds used for various purposes in the US were sterilized and imported from China. Indeed, China remains the largest producer of hempseed. We have grown Chinese hemp land races, and these were short, branched, adapted to a very long growing season (i.e. they come into flower very slowly in response to photoperiodic induction of short days in the fall), and altogether they were rather reminiscent of Dewey’s description of Smyrna. Although similar in appearance to narcotic strains of C. sativa, the Chinese land races we grew were in fact low in intoxicating constituents, and it may well be that what Dewey thought was a narcotic strain was not. Although some forms of C. sativa have quite large seeds, until recently oilseed forms appear to have been mainly selected for a heavy yield of seeds, usually recognizable by abundant branching. Such forms are typically grown at lower densities than hemp grown only for fiber, as this promotes branching, although it should be understood that the genetic propensity for branching has been selected. Percentage or quality of oil in the seeds does not appear to have been important in the past, although selection for these traits is now being conducted. Most significantly, modern selection is occurring with regard to mechanized harvesting, particularly the ability to grow in high density as single-headed stalks with very short branches bearing considerable seed.
• Dr. Jamie Peyton, chief of small animal integrative medicine at University of California, Davis, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, led a late 2017/early 2018 study on the current use of cannabis with companion animals. By anonymously filling out an online questionnaire, participants provided the study with data that can be used to inform future research (the study is now closed).
Because of its cloudy classification and constantly-shifting political winds, CBD creates a legal quagmire for anybody who wants to study or recommend its effectiveness as a medicine for animals. To date, there have been no rigorous scientific studies published on marijuana, or even the non-psychoactive CBD, as a treatment for pets with arthritis, seizures, anxiety, or any other medical conditions. But that may soon (hopefully) be changing, as a few studies are either in the planning stages or underway. 
Years passed, and more studies rolled out with medically beneficial findings regarding cannabis until 2009 when Steep Hill Laboratory in Oakland, California, tested cannabis samples provided by Harborside Health Center to discover that a handful of cultivars contained more CBD than THC. This discovery kicked other labs into gear. They wanted to study medical cannabis to understand and potentially calibrate their cannabinoid ratios. Soon thereafter, laboratories uncovered CBD-dominant strains boasting 20:1 CBD to THC ratios, which opened up the cannabis market for a panoply of CBD products.
^ Jump up to: a b Resstel LB, Tavares RF, Lisboa SF, Joca SR, Corrêa FM, Guimarães FS (January 2009). "5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats". British Journal of Pharmacology. 156 (1): 181–8. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00046.x. PMC 2697769. PMID 19133999.
Hemp seeds have an attractive nutty taste, and are now incorporated into many food preparations (Fig. 34), often mimicking familiar foods. Those sold in North America include nutritional (granola-type) or snack bars, “nut butters” and other spreads, bread, pretzels, cookies, yogurts, pancakes, porridge, fruit crumble, frozen dessert (“ice cream”), pasta, burgers, pizza, salt substitute, salad dressings, mayonnaise, “cheese,” and beverages (“milk,” “lemonade,” “beer,” “wine,” “coffee nog”). Hemp seed is often found canned or vacuum-packed (Fig. 35). Alcoholic beverages made with hemp utilize hempseed as a flavorant. Hemp food products currently have a niche market, based particularly on natural food and specialty food outlets.
Hemp is considered by a 1998 study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks.[63] A 2010 study, however, that compared the production of paper specifically from hemp and eucalyptus concluded that "industrial hemp presents higher environmental impacts than eucalyptus paper"; however, the article also highlights that "there is scope for improving industrial hemp paper production".[64] Hemp is also claimed to require few pesticides and no herbicides, and it has been called a carbon negative raw material.[65][66] Results indicate that high yield of hemp may require high total nutrient levels (field plus fertilizer nutrients) similar to a high yielding wheat crop.[67]
CBD and THC interact with our bodies in a variety of ways. One of the main ways they impact us is by mimicking and augmenting the effects of the compounds in our bodies called “endogenous cannabinoids” - so named because of their similarity to the compounds found in the cannabis plant. These “endocannabinoids” are part of a regulatory system called the “endocannabinoid system”.
Stephanie Kahn, who with her husband, Jeffrey, runs the Takoma Wellness Center, a medical marijuana dispensary in Northwest Washington, says that about half of her 1,200 patients use CBD-rich products. Her dispensary offers several strains of high-CBD cannabis as well as CBD oil, with different ratios of CBD and THC, each of which she recommends for particular conditions. “We get questions about it every day,” she says. “A lot of our patients get relief with this, and a lot of times this works better than pharmaceutical drugs.”
By selectively churning out these cannabinoids in the lab, it’ll be easier for researchers to play with them in isolation and with each other, without having to wade through hundreds of other compounds you’d find in pure flower. “Ultimately, a molecule is a molecule,” says Raber. Indeed, cannabinoids made from yeast are the same cannabinoids the plant makes. “It gives flexibility in formulation, it gives broader utility perhaps, and it may eventually scale faster than plants. Regulators might feel a lot better about these types of approaches than those that are fields and fields and fields of plant material.”

Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs and soy.[21] Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, and 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed.[22]
Smart Hemp CBD is a newly launched line of terpene- and phytocannabinoid-rich hemp cannabidiol (CBD) extract products specifically formulated for cats, dogs, and horses. Developed under the direction of a veterinarian, the product line aims to provide everyday health benefits as well as relief for anxiety, appetite loss, aggressive behavior, allergies, inflammation, seizures, and arthritis.
Yes, unfortunately we get this type of question frequently from internet trolls!The first misunderstanding here is rooted in thinking that hemp is the same as pot. Hemp is a form of the cannabis plant that does NOT have the psychoactive THC chemical; i.e., you cannot get high off hemp. To be considered hemp, a cannabis plant must have less than 0.3% THC. A good analogy is to compare grape juice to wine; when grape juice ferments, it becomes alcohol. If it doesn’t contain alcohol, it’s just grape juice. Your dog can no more get high from our PurCBD+ or hemp than you could get drunk by drinking grape juice.

Over decades, researchers have found that THC may help treat pain, nausea, loss of appetite and other problems, while CBD was thought to be biologically inactive in humans. But in the past 10 years, scientists have concluded that CBD may be quite useful. Dozens of studies have found evidence that the compound can treat epilepsy as well as a range of other illnesses, including anxiety, schizophrenia, heart disease and cancer.
Also high in fiber, hemp seeds are more digestible than any other high-protein food, including meat, cheese, eggs, human milk, or cows’ milk. They’re high in antioxidants, and minerals like iron, zinc and copper as well as calcium, magnesium, potassium, carotene, thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), vitamin B6 and vitamin E. If that’s not enough, there’s also chlorophyll, sulfur, phosphorus, phospholipids, and phytosterols.
Cannabis use is associated with increased recruitment of task-related areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is thought to reflect compensatory activity due to reduced processing efficiency.[114][113][116] Cannabis use is also associated with downregulation of CB1 receptors. The magnitude of down regulation is associated with cumulative cannabis exposure, and is reversed after one month of abstinence.[117][118][119] There is limited evidence that chronic cannabis use can reduce levels of glutamate metabolites in the human brain.[120]
First, a little background. Industrial hemp was legal in the United States until Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act in 1937. ("Some of our early presidents grew hemp," notes Sarah Lee Gossett Parrish, a cannabis industry attorney based in Oklahoma.) Nearly 80 years later, the 2014 Farm Bill took the position that states can regulate the production of hemp and, as a result, CBD. Then last year, President Trump signed a new Farm Bill that made it federally legal to grow hemp.
Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis,[264] young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs.[265] Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug.[266] Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the "2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey" used cannabis.[267]
The Gateway Hypothesis states that cannabis use increases the probability of trying "harder" drugs. The hypothesis has been hotly debated as it is regarded by some as the primary rationale for the United States prohibition on cannabis use.[261][262] A Pew Research Center poll found that political opposition to marijuana use was significantly associated with concerns about health effects and whether legalization would increase marijuana use by children.[263]
The edible seeds contain about 30 percent oil and are a source of protein, fibre, and magnesium. Shelled hemp seeds, sometimes called hemp hearts, are sold as a health food and may be eaten raw; they are commonly sprinkled on salads or blended with fruit smoothies. Hemp seed milk is used as an alternative to dairy milk in drinks and recipes. The oil obtained from hemp seed can be used to make paints, varnishes, soaps, and edible oil with a low smoke point. Historically, the seed’s chief commercial use has been for caged-bird feed.

The high absorbency of hemp hurds has led to their occasional use as an absorbent for oil and waste spill cleanup. Hemp as an industrial absorbent has generated some interest in Alberta, for use in land reclamation in the oil and gas industry. Because hemp hurds are a costly product, it is likely that animal bedding will remain the most important application.
As detailed below, the development of hemp as a new legal crop in North America must be considered in relation to illicit cultivation, so it is important to appreciate the scope of the drug situation. Up until the first half of the 20th century, drug preparations of Cannabis were used predominantly as a recreational inebriant in poor countries and the lower socio-economic classes of developed nations. After World War II, marijuana became associated with the rise of a hedonistic, psychedelic ethos, first in the United States and eventually over much of the world, with the consequent development of a huge international illicit market that exceeds the value of the hemp market during its heyday. Table 3 shows the “economic significance” (dollars generated in the black market plus dollar cost of control measures) of the illicit drug industry associated with C. sativa, and contrasts this with the estimated dollar value of major categories of legitimate uses. In the Netherlands, the annual value of narcotic hemp cultivation (ca. $10 billion) exceeds the value of tulips (Collins 1999). Marijuana has become the most widely disseminated illicit species in the world (Schultes and Hofmann 1980). With the exception of alcohol, it is the most widely used recreational euphoric drug. About 25% of North Americans are believed to have used Cannabis illegally. According to the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/marijuana.html), more than 72 million Americans (33%) 12 years of age and older have tried marijuana. Cultivation, commerce, and consumption of drug preparations of Cannabis have been proscribed in most countries during the present century. The cost of enforcing the laws against Cannabis in North America is in the billions of dollars annually. In addition, there are substantial social costs, such as adverse effects on users, particularly those who are convicted. Tragically this includes some legitimate farmers who, faced with financial ruin because of the unprofitability of crops being grown, converted to growing marijuana.
^ Parliament of the Czech Republic (1998), Explanatory Report to Act No. 112/1998 Coll., which amends the Act No. 140/1961 Coll., the Criminal Code, and the Act No. 200/1990 Coll., on misdemeanors (in Czech), Prague "Podle čl. 36 Jednotné úmluvy o omamných látkách ze dne 31. března 1961 (č. 47/1965 Sb.) se signatáři zavazují k trestnímu postihu tam uvedených forem nakládání s drogami včetně jejich držby. Návrh upouští od dosavadní beztrestnosti držby omamných a psychotropních látek a jedů pro svoji potřebu. Dosavadní beztrestnost totiž eliminuje v řadě případů možnost postihu dealerů a distributorů drog."

Hemp is grown in temperate zones as an annual cultivated from seed and can reach a height of up to 5 metres (16 feet). Crops grow best in sandy loam with good drainage and require average monthly rainfall of at least 65 mm (2.5 inches) throughout the growing season. Crops cultivated for fibre are densely sowed and produce plants averaging 2–3 metres (6–10 feet) tall with almost no branching. Plants grown for oilseed are planted farther apart and are shorter and many-branched. The slender stalks are hollow except at the tip and base. The leaves are compound with palmate shape, and the flowers are small and greenish yellow. Seed-producing flowers form elongate, spikelike clusters growing on the pistillate, or female, plants. Pollen-producing flowers form many-branched clusters on staminate, or male, plants. Maximum yield and quality are obtained by harvesting soon after the plants reach maturity, indicated by the full blossoms and freely shedding pollen of the male plants. Although sometimes pulled up by hand, plants are more often cut off about 2.5 cm (1 inch) above the ground.
Deeper pockets are also helping them to dominate CBD products—derived from cannabis but without a high—that are of interest to some of the world’s biggest consumer companies, including... — Carol Ryan, WSJ, "U.S. Cannabis Law Is Helping Canada Make Hay," 27 Feb. 2019 Meanwhile, 10 states and Washington, DC, have legalized the intoxicating form of cannabis for recreational purposes, while 32 states have for medical uses. — German Lopez, Vox, "Trump and Congress just legalized hemp," 20 Dec. 2018 The state’s Cannabis Control Commission has since granted one dispensary a provisional retail license, and another company licenses to grow and transport non-medical cannabis. — Matthew Ormseth, courant.com, "U.S. Attorney in Massachusetts Says Opioids, Not Marijuana, A Priority As State Readies Retail Market," 10 July 2018 The city's mayor Alex Morse believes Holyoke is the ideal location for the cannabis industry in Massachusetts -- and possibly the country. — CBS News, "Holyoke, Massachusetts, is ready to welcome the marijuana industry with open arms," 30 June 2018 Rat offspring exposed to THC — tetrahydrocannabinol, the chief psychoactive ingredient in cannabis — and others that were not had to learn how to press one of two levers to get a sugar pellet reward. — Erik Lacitis, The Seattle Times, "‘Something wasn’t clicking’: WSU study shows offspring of pregnant rats exposed to THC have impaired development," 20 Nov. 2018 It's also derived from cannabidiol (CBD), one of the major compounds found in cannabis. — Sarah Jacoby, SELF, "Updated: What You Need to Know About Epidiolex, the First FDA-Approved Drug Made From Cannabis," 1 Nov. 2018 Attendees must bring their own cannabis, but smoking, edibles, and vaping are all encouraged as part of the creative process and the social experience. — Sarah Shemkus, BostonGlobe.com, "5 marijuana-infused things to do in New England," 21 June 2018 But Salmonella can also turn up in unexpected places — like in tahini, or on cantaloupes, or even drugs like cannabis and kratom. — Rachel Becker, The Verge, "Machine learning could help figure out what pooped on your produce," 12 Dec. 2018
Pinfold Consulting. 1998. (G. Pinfold Consulting Economists Ltd. and J. White, InfoResults Ltd.). A maritime industrial hemp product marketing study. Prepared for Nova Scotia Agriculture and Marketing (Marketing and Food Industry Development), and New Brunswick Agriculture & Rural Development (Marketing and Business Development). agri.gov.ns.ca/pt/agron/hemp/hempms.htm
Laboratory evidence indicated that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, increasing plasma concentrations which may raise THC availability to receptors and enhance its effect in a dose-dependent manner.[24][25] In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited receptors affecting the activity of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels, which may affect neural activity.[26] A small clinical trial reported that CBD partially inhibited the CYP2C-catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC.[27]

Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[31] It has also been found to act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[12] Although currently classified as orphan receptors, these receptors are most closely related phylogenetically to the cannabinoid receptors.[12] In addition to orphan receptors, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist,[32] and this action may be involved in its antidepressant,[33][34] anxiolytic,[34][35] and neuroprotective effects.[36][37] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[38] The pharmacological effects of CBD have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]


Currently available for purchase online, Smart Hemp CBD products include topical balms; soft bites and chews for dogs; gel capsules that can be mixed with food or wrapped inside a treat; powdered hemp meal supplements that can be mixed with food; tinctures that can be administered under a pet's tongue or by mixing it with food; and hemp meal pellets for horses.
Ultimately, CBD is a form of medical marijuana that takes out the THC to create a nontoxic form. There are many uses for these Hemp oils and helping our furry friends is a great place to start. Whether this article helped you decide you want to try CBD for your dog or yourself you now know what they are all about. A lot of good can come from CBD for dogs, and the benefits they can carry.
Cannabis contains a seemingly unique class of chemicals, the cannabinoids, of which more than 60 have been described, but only a few are psychoactive. Cannabinoids are produced in specialized epidermal glands, which differ notably in distribution on different organs of the plant (high concentrations occur on the upper surface of the young leaves and young twigs, on the tepals, stamens, and especially on the perigonal bract). Given this distribution, the glands would seem to be protective of young and reproductive above-ground tissues (the roots lack glands). Two classes of epidermal glands occur—stalked and sessile (Fig. 8), but in either case the glandular cells are covered by a sheath under which resin is accumulated, until the sheath ruptures, releasing resin on the surface. The resin is a sticky mixture of cannabinoids and a variety of terpenes. The characteristic odor of the plant is due to the abundant terpenes, which are not psychoactive. The more important cannabinoids are shown in Fig. 9. In the plant the cannabinoids exist predominantly in the form of carboxylic acids, which decarboxylate with time or when heated. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC, or simply THC) is the predominant psychoactive component. Other THC isomers also occur, particularly D8-THC, which is also psychoactive. Technically, the euphoric psychological effects of THC are best described by the word psychotomimetic. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the chief non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid. A THC concentration in marijuana of approximately 0.9% has been suggested as a practical minimum level to achieve the (illegal) intoxicant effect, but CBD (the predominant cannabinoid of fiber and oilseed varieties) antagonizes (i.e. reduces) the effects of THC (Grotenhermen and Karus 1998). Concentrations of 0.3% to 0.9% are considered to have “only a small drug potential” (Grotenhermen and Karus 1998). Some cannabinoid races have been described, notably containing cannabichromene (particularly in high-THC forms) and cannabigerol monomethyl ether (in some Asian strains). The biosynthetic pathways of the cannabinoids are not yet satisfactorily elucidated, although the scheme shown in Fig. 10 is commonly accepted. At least in some strains, THC is derived from cannabigerol, while in others it may be derived from CBD. CBN and D8-THC are considered to be degradation products or analytical artifacts (Pate 1998a).

There are a few different ways to extract CBD oil, though the CO2 extraction method tends to result in the purest CBD oil. This extraction method involves the use of carbon dioxide in an environment of very cold temperatures and high pressure. Such an extraction method not only result in a pure form of CBD oil, but it also tends to come with far fewer solvents and residue that may be left behind with other methods of extraction.
Hemp plants are varieties of Cannabis sativa L. Hemp is a dioecious plant, which means it can be separated into male and female plants. Hemp plants have served a wide variety of purposes for more than 10,000 years for fiber (from the plant’s stems) and protein (from seeds). Hemp fibers can be used to make countless household items, including paper, clothing, furnishing fabric, rope, food, and building materials.
Despite its centrality in human cultures across the globe, the European taxonomists who bequeathed Cannabis sativa its name didn’t quite get it right. When Carolus Linneaus came to naming the marijuana plant’s genus, he thought there was only one species, instead of the three we now know exist. Hence the confusion surrounding the fact that there are three distinct species of the genus Cannabis sativa, one of which is the sativa species.
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