CBD strains can be consumed just as you would THC strains. You can smoke or vaporize CBD-rich flower, eat a CBD-infused edible, swallow a CBD oil capsule, apply a CBD lotion, or use a CBD tincture sublingually. Hemp products also contain CBD, though it is a less efficient source and lacks the beneficial chemical diversity of cannabis-derived CBD products (more on that here).

Over decades, researchers have found that THC may help treat pain, nausea, loss of appetite and other problems, while CBD was thought to be biologically inactive in humans. But in the past 10 years, scientists have concluded that CBD may be quite useful. Dozens of studies have found evidence that the compound can treat epilepsy as well as a range of other illnesses, including anxiety, schizophrenia, heart disease and cancer.


Cannabidiol is a chemical in the Cannabis sativa plant, also known as marijuana. Over 80 chemicals, known as cannabinoids, have been identified in the Cannabis sativa plant. While delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major active ingredient, cannabidiol makes up about 40% of cannabis extracts and has been studied for many different uses. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because cannabidiol has been studied as a new drug, products containing cannabidiol are not defined as dietary supplements. But there are still products labeled as dietary supplements on the market that contain cannabidiol. The amount of cannabidiol contained in these products is not always reported accurately on the product label.
Cannabidiol has been found to carry important health benefits for dogs, cats, and many other species. Even animals as big as horses have responded well to CBD treatments so far. While there are no known drug interactions or problems with dogs or in animal species other than humans, it’s wise to consider dosage based on their body size, metabolism, and other characteristics. It’s a good idea to consult your vet if you’re going to give CBD for dogs to anything other than a household dog or cat.
Natural Doesn’t Mean Better: First of all, no marijuana or CBD product you might give your dog is natural. Apart from raw, unprocessed marijuana (which you should absolutely NOT give to your dog), anything you get has been processed or altered in some fashion. Second, natural things can be dangerous, too. For example, xylitol is a “natural” sugar-free sweetener, derived from sources like birch bark, but it is highly toxic to dogs. 
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of many cannabinoid molecules produced by cannabis, second only to THC in abundance. These plant-derived cannabinoids, or phytocannabinoids (phyto = plant in Greek), are characterized by their ability to act on the cannabinoid receptors that are part of our endocannabinoid system. While THC is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis and has certain medical uses, CBD stands out because it is both non-intoxicating and displays a broad range of potential medical applications including helping with anxiety, inflammation, pain, and seizures. These makes CBD an attractive therapeutic compound.
When privacy isn’t a requirement, outdoor cannabis grows can provide many advantages over indoor operations. Sunlight is the single most important factor for successful outdoor marijuana growing. It’s important to choose a plot with total sunshine throughout the day. Therefore, cannabis growers in the northern hemisphere will want plots with southern exposure, exposing marijuana plants to the sun’s arc across the sky.

Dr. Cornelia Wagner, owner of Hawthorne Veterinary Clinic in Portland, OR, is one of the veterinarians opening her mind and her doctor’s office to the idea of cannabis as a safe, effective medicine when dosed properly. She’s the first to acknowledge that there are no clear medical guidelines for doing so, and thus strictly recommends beginning any pet’s treatment with the lowest amount possible–about 1 mg/ml a day.


Our reviews also include the ingredients and a description of the scent and texture of each CBD topical. We tried to remain neutral in our descriptions of each product, since each consumer’s experience is subjective. These are all high-quality CBD creams, balms and salves, but you may find you prefer one scent over another. You might love or hate menthol. Some people prefer a light texture, while other buyers are looking for CBD topicals to use in a massage.
A mixture of fiberglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles.[37] The choice of which bast fiber to use is primarily based on cost and availability. Various car makers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including Audi, BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Iveco, Lotus, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Saturn, Volkswagen[38] and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise[39] and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter).[40]
One study comparing the effects of THC and CBD even found that, while THC increased anxiety by activating the neurotransmitters involved in the "fight or flight" response, CBD actually repressed autonomic arousal—or the nervous system response associated with sudden increases in heart rate or respiration. In other words, CBD is ideal for people looking to relax and unwind—not get out of their minds.
Heavy, long-term exposure to marijuana may have biologically based physical, mental, behavioral and social health consequences and may be "associated with diseases of the liver (particularly with co-existing hepatitis C), lungs, heart, and vasculature".[83] It is recommended that cannabis use be stopped before and during pregnancy as it can result in negative outcomes for both the mother and baby.[84][85] However, maternal use of marijuana during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with low birth weight or early delivery after controlling for tobacco use and other confounding factors.[86] A 2014 review found that while cannabis use may be less harmful than alcohol use, the recommendation to substitute it for problematic drinking was premature without further study.[87] Various surveys conducted between 2015 and 2019 found that many users of cannabis substitute it for prescription drugs (including opioids), alcohol, and tobacco; most of those who used it in place of alcohol or tobacco either reduced or stopped their intake of the latter substances.[88]
Thapa, D., Toguri, J. T., Szczesniak, A. M., & Kelly, A. E. M. (2017, April 1). The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), and the synthetic derivatives, HU308 and CBD-DMH, reduces hyperalgesia and inflammation in a mouse model of corneal injury [Abstract]. FASEB Journal. Retrieved from https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.811.7
Cannabidiol has antipsychotic effects. The exact cause for these effects is not clear. But cannabidiol seems to prevent the breakdown of a chemical in the brain that affects pain, mood, and mental function. Preventing the breakdown of this chemical and increasing its levels in the blood seems to reduce psychotic symptoms associated with conditions such as schizophrenia. Cannabidiol might also block some of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Also, cannabidiol seems to reduce pain and anxiety.
A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories. They contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, and 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value (DV) of protein per 100-gram serving.[20] Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber (20% DV), B vitamins, and the dietary minerals manganese (362% DV), phosphorus (236% DV), magnesium (197% DV), zinc (104% DV), and iron (61% DV). About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[20] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[21]
In a study whose findings have not yet been published, he and a colleague, Daniel Friedman, found that patients receiving CBD in addition to their usual medicines had 39 percent fewer convulsive seizures than patients who remained on their normal drug regimen. Given that the study included only the most treatment-resistant patients, this is an “excellent response,” Devinsky says.
Some states only allow for products infused with CBD, some only allow for high-CBD and low-THC products, while others allow both THC and CBD. To further confuse the American citizenry, some states permit patients the use of CBD, but require that they travel to another state to purchase it. To make sense of this confounding patchwork and to learn about each individual state’s CBD laws, read the Weedmaps Laws and Regulations page. Go Here For Cannabis CBD
One of the reasons the THC dosage should be administered with an even lighter hand is because dogs have a more complex endocannabinoid system as humans, with many more receptors. They feel the effects of THC much stronger than we do. Although infused dog treats are available at most dispensaries, pet-owners who keep cannabis tincture around can use that as well, just in smaller amounts. There are options like a whole plant-extract formula by Luminous Botanicals at Oregon dispensaries, or this GrönCBD tincture–an example of safe, synthetic CBD made from tree lichen. To achieve these small doses, you can use a water syringe to separate the proper sized dose and then some water, so it can be squirted quickly and directly into your pet’s mouth.
This non-greasy formula is a lightweight counterpart to all those heavy hemp salves and balms that you tend to see on the market, so much so that you could use this every day on your entire body without worries about staining your clothes. Along with the Colorado-grown CBD oil, it has a lotion base made with aloe vera leaf juice powder (good for antioxidants), lactic acid (good for exfoliation), and other reputable skincare ingredients. Keep this by your shower and use it while your skin is still moist, warm, and soft for the best results.
And the products on the shelf aren't all the same, Ward said. "There can be many, many different varieties, and if you're thinking about doing this for medical reasons, you want to find a trusted source and do your research," she said. "Where does that oil come from, and how confident can you be that you know the exact percentages of the different cannabinoids in the product?"
Hemp crops are tall, have thick foliage, and can be planted densely, and thus can be grown as a smother crop to kill tough weeds.[47] Using hemp this way can help farmers avoid the use of herbicides, gain organic certification, and gain the benefits of crop rotation. However, due to the plant's rapid and dense growth characteristics, some jurisdictions consider hemp a prohibited and noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom.[48]
If medical marijuana is illegal in a given state, THC levels determine whether a CBD product is illicit or not. In most places, the limit is extremely low. We’re talking under 1 percent THC, with some states opting for a cap as low as 0.3 percent. In this case, the only source that would work is hemp, and CBD products will, therefore, be hemp-derived.
Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, some of which produce the "high" which may be experienced from consuming marijuana. There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant,[49] and at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant.[50] The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but only THC is psychoactive.[51] Since the early 1970s, Cannabis plants have been categorized by their chemical phenotype or "chemotype", based on the overall amount of THC produced, and on the ratio of THC to CBD.[52] Although overall cannabinoid production is influenced by environmental factors, the THC/CBD ratio is genetically determined and remains fixed throughout the life of a plant.[37] Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F1) generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce intermedite amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC to be utilized for drug production.[52][53]

This article may contain certain forward-looking statements and information, as defined within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and is subject to the Safe Harbor created by those sections. This material contains statements about expected future events and/or financial results that are forward-looking in nature and subject to risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements by definition involve risks, uncertainties.
Traditionally, hemp fiber has been a very coarse fiber when raw, which made it well suited to rope but less than ideal for clothing designed to be worn against delicate human skin. Advances in breeding of the plants and treatment/processing of the fibers have resulted in a much finer, softer hemp fiber, which is ideal for weaving into hemp clothing, fabrics and rope. Watch the video on Hemp for victory to learn more about the importance of hemp during war times.

Subsequent studies were carried out in different countries, which confirmed the results found in the Zammit et al. (2002) study, showing that those clinically dependent on cannabis by 18 years of age had an increased risk of later developing psychotic symptoms (Fergusson, Horwood, & Swain-Campbell, 2003). Cannabis users were also more likely to develop schizophreniform disorder (Arseneault et al., 2002), and the dose–response relationship found in the first study was confirmed (Henquet et al., 2005).

I have tried at least 3 other brands of CBD oil . Medterra has been the absolute best for me. It helps with my pain from arthritic joints spine issues and fibromyalgia. It laso helps with anxiety. I take the 500 CBD tincture twice a day. I use the Cooling cream 750 on my knees cervical and lumbar spines. I alsi use it on my hands and left hip. It is very good at pain relief . My experience with the customer service department has been superb. The service rep Heather has been very easy to work with respectful and very prompt. Medterra is a been and company I will gladly recommend to friends family and my doctors. Thank you Medterra for a great product and excellent service.


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• Is there a batch number? You know how you check your raw chicken or bagged lettuce every time there's a recall to make sure the one you bought isn't going to make you sick? You should be able to do that with CBD products too. "This is a huge indicator as to whether they are following good manufacturing practices," says Beatty. "There should be a way to identify this product in case it was improperly made so the company can carry out a recall."

According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.[117]
There is reasonable evidence from prospective epidemiological studies which suggests that cannabis use can precipitate schizophrenia in persons who are vulnerable because of a personal or family history of schizophrenia. There is also evidence that a genetic vulnerability to psychosis increases the risk that cannabis users will develop psychosis (McGuire et al., 1995; Arseneault et al., 2002; Verdoux et al., 2002). A casual relationship also has biological plausibility in that the cannabinoid and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems interact in animals. D'Souza and colleagues (1999) have shown in a provocation study that THC produces a dose-dependent increase in psychotic symptoms under double-blind placebo conditions; and Caspi and colleagues (2005) have shown an interaction between specific alleles of the COMT allele and psychotogenic effects of cannabis. If these results can be replicated and extended, they will increase the likelihood that cannabis can be a contributory cause of psychosis in vulnerable individuals.
As I research more I am disgusted with how we have all been deceived. I feel confident now with being able to research things on our own, at any moment in time, we can begin to take back our world. In the early 30’s one of the great media conspiracies unfolded. Publisher William Hearst, Dupont, the petroleum interests, the cotton lobby, the bankers and some ignorant politicians lead a crusade to ban hemp to line their pockets. Hemp can revolutionize our society. Please research and pass on!
First, a little background. Industrial hemp was legal in the United States until Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act in 1937. ("Some of our early presidents grew hemp," notes Sarah Lee Gossett Parrish, a cannabis industry attorney based in Oklahoma.) Nearly 80 years later, the 2014 Farm Bill took the position that states can regulate the production of hemp and, as a result, CBD. Then last year, President Trump signed a new Farm Bill that made it federally legal to grow hemp.
Medical marijuana can soothe nausea and increase appetite, quiet pain, soothe anxiety and even reduce epileptic seizures. Other research on the healing effects of cannabis is being examined. For example, research suggests that THC may be able to improve memory according to a 2016 study on mice. More than half of the United States has legalized marijuana for medical use.
Wikidata: Q79817 Wikispecies: Cannabis APDB: 189080 APNI: 106875 BioLib: 3465 EoL: 72695 EPPO: 1CNIG FloraBase: 22595 FNA: 105522 FoC: 105522 GBIF: 2984538 GRIN: 2034 iNaturalist: 72032 IPNI: 40737-1 IRMNG: 1280947 ITIS: 19108 NBN: NHMSYS0000456774 NCBI: 3482 NZOR: 5344e3b5-4049-474a-ac38-eb23ffc8f216 PLANTS: CANNA POWO: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:30204649-2 Tropicos: 40000735 uBio: 4894539 VASCAN: 945
• The results of a study led by Dr. Joe Wakshlag, associate professor and section chief of nutrition at Cornell, currently under review for publication, also contribute to the knowledge bank. According to the abstract, its objectives were to “determine the basic oral pharmacokinetics, determine safety and assess efficacy of CBD oil in managing pain in dogs with osteoarthritis.” The Canine Brief Pain Inventory and Hudson activity scores reportedly showed a clinically significant reduction in pain and an increase in activity with CBD treatment.
Lisa Hamilton, a jeweler and doula in Brooklyn, NY, knows about the side effects. She recently tried CBD for the shoulder pain that plagued her five years after an accident. Her doctor certified that she was in chronic pain, which under New York State law allowed her to buy from a state dispensary. One Friday, she swallowed two 10-mg capsules, the amount recommended at the dispensary, then took another two on Saturday. “By Sunday, it felt like I’d gotten hit by a truck. Every muscle and joint ached,” Hamilton says. She cut back to one pill a day the following week, but still felt hungover. She stopped after that.
Ingredients: Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil, Stearic Acid (Vegetable Derived), Cetyl Alcohol (Coconut Alcohol), Sodium Hydroxide (non-GMO, mineral-salt), Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Seed Extract, Aloe barbadensis Leaf Juice, Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), Glycerin (non-GMO, vegetable-derived), Potassium Sorbate (non-GMO, mineral-salt), Xanthan Gum (non-GMO, vegetable-derived), Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil*, Menthol (Mentha arvensis), Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil*, Ocimum basilicum (Basil) Leaf Oil*, Citrus aurantium bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil*, Whole Hemp Derived CBD Isolate, Montana (Arnica) Flower Oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil, Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Root Oil*, Citrus medica limonum (Lemon) Peel Oil*, Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) Peel Oil*, Citrus aurantium dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil*, Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract, Salvia sclarea (Clary) Oil*, Phenoxyethanol

^ Russo, E. B.; Jiang, H.-E.; Li, X.; Sutton, A.; Carboni, A.; Del Bianco, F.; Mandolino, G.; Potter, D. J.; Zhao, Y.-X.; Bera, S.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Lü, E.-G.; Ferguson, D. K.; Hueber, F.; Zhao, L.-C.; Liu, C.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-S. (2008). "Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia". Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (15): 4171–82. doi:10.1093/jxb/ern260. PMC 2639026. PMID 19036842.
In Canada, the methodology used for analyses and sample collection for THC analysis of hemp plantings is standardized (at the Health Canada/Therapeutics Program/Hemp web site at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html, see “Industrial Hemp Technical Manual” for procedures on sampling plant materials and chemical procedures for determining THC levels). The regulations require that one of the dozen independent laboratories licensed for the purpose conduct the analyses and report the results to Health Canada. Sample collection is also normally carried out by an independent authorized firm. The Canadian system of monitoring THC content has rigidly limited hemp cultivation to cultivars that consistently develop THC levels below 0.3%.
Hemp is completely different from marijuana in its function, cultivation and application. But these differences didn’t stop our political leaders from getting confused and accidentally grouping all Cannabis species as a Schedule I Drug and banning it in 1970 under the Controlled Substances Act. Even after 45 years, the government still seems to have some confusion in distinguishing the two plants. Although legislation is being made, progress has been slow.In its application, hemp and marijuana serve completely different purposes. Marijuana, as it is widely known, is used for medicinal or recreational purposes. Hemp is used in variety of other applications that marijuana couldn’t possibly be used in. These include healthy dietary supplements, skin products, clothing, and accessories. Overall, hemp is known to have over 25,000 possible applications.

That's not to say CBD-infused creams definitely won't reduce your acute pain or muscle soreness. That's because pretty much all of these creams on the market right now have other scientifically-proven analgesic compounds, like menthol, camphor, and capsaicin which are also found in other, non-CBD topical pain relievers. "Any cream with a heating or cooling sensation desensitizes the nerves to pain by distracting them with stimuli on top," Dr. Colberg explains. Plus you're often massaging the area as you apply, which improves circulation and reduces muscle spasms, he adds.


The most effective cannabinoid to relax muscles is CBD (600mg inside). CBD cream has been shown to relieve pain more effectively than opioid pain killers. Use our CBD cream to help maintain optimal skin moisturization and help maintain skin revitalization and conditioning. Our uniquely formulated CBD topical cream can quickly absorb through the skin to help give you the muscle and joint recovery you need.
The most widespread claim for environmental friendliness of hemp is that it has the potential to save trees that otherwise would be harvested for production of lumber and pulp. Earlier, the limitations of hemp as a pulp substitute were examined. With respect to wood products, several factors appear to favor increased use of wood substitutes, especially agricultural fibers such as hemp. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Agroforestry using tree species is one useful response, but nevertheless sacrifices wild lands and biodiversity, and is less preferable than sustainable wildland forestry. The use of agricultural residues (e.g. straw bales in house construction) is an especially environmentally friendly solution to sparing trees, but material limitations restrict use. Another chief advantage of several annual fiber crops over forestry crops is relative productivity, annual fiber crops sometimes producing of the order of four times as much per unit of land. Still another important advantage is the precise control over production quantities and schedule that is possible with annual crops. In many parts of the world, tree crops are simply not a viable alternative. “By the turn of the century 3 billion people may live in areas where wood is cut faster than it grows or where fuelwood is extremely scarce” (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987). “Since mid-century, lumber use has tripled, paper use has increased six-fold, and firewood use has soared as Third World populations have multiplied” (Brown et al. 1998). Insofar as hemp reduces the need to harvest trees for building materials or other products, its use as a wood substitute will tend to contribute to preserving biodiversity. Hemp may also enhance forestry management by responding to short-term fiber demand while trees reach their ideal maturation. In developing countries where fuelwood is becoming increasingly scarce and food security is a concern, the introduction of a dual-purpose crop such as hemp to meet food, shelter, and fuel needs may contribute significantly to preserving biodiversity.
Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants.[15] Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been determined to use the XY system. In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently.[31]
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But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.

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