I have a 2.5 yr old boxer pit mix who I adopted from the shelter with auto immune problems. She suffers from anything like skin rashes to elevated liver to allergies and swelling of her little toes 🙁 What do you recommend? I don’t mind spending the money to help her be comfortable …any advice would help as I have never given her anything like this 🙂
The mosaic of laws that govern CBD legality across the globe varies just as much as the legislation across the US. Generally, CBD extract is legal in most countries, but what makes it illegal is where and what it’s extracted from. Most Group of 20 (G20) countries allow CBD extracted from industrial hemp, but not CBD extracted from whole-plant marijuana. Note, however, the differences between the two. Legislation regarding international travel with CBD also varies among countries. For the foreseeable future, the best practice would be to search online, or contact the respective embassies or consulates, before traveling to determine whether your CBD is safe and legal.
Global spending on legal cannabis worldwide will hit $57 billion in a decade, according to Arcview Market Research and BDS Analytics. Driven by the legalization of recreational and medical cannabis and the increasing demand for both, legal cannabis revenue in the U.S. is projected to hit $23.4 billion by 2022. Yahoo Finance is now tracking the major players in the cannabis industry.
Remember that if CBD contains more than 0.03% THC, it may be illegal in some states and per federal law, so it’s well worth it to shop from a reliable and trusted source, American Hemp Oil. We test our products multiple times, in-house and using a third-party laboratory to make sure that our CBD for dogs is the highest quality and the purest concentration, and every bottle is labeled accurately.
In modern times, the Rastafari movement has embraced Cannabis as a sacrament.[125] Elders of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, a religious movement founded in the United States in 1975 with no ties to either Ethiopia or the Coptic Church, consider Cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ.[126] Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis is the Tree of Life.[127][128] Other organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat Cannabis as a sacrament are the THC Ministry,[129] Cantheism,[130] the Cannabis Assembly[131] and the Church of Cognizance. Rastafarians tend to be among the biggest consumers of modern Cannabis use.

The 2014 Agricultural Act, more commonly known as the 2014 Farm Bill, signed by Democratic President Barack Obama, includes section 7606, which allows for universities and state departments of agriculture to cultivate industrial hemp, as long as it is cultivated for the purpose of research. Under the 2014 Agricultural act, state departments and universities must also be registered with their state, and defer to state laws and regulations for approval to grow hemp.
^ Jump up to: a b c Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J.; Rohrback, Brian G.; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel (22 May 2014). "Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Epilepsia. 55 (6): 791–802. doi:10.1111/epi.12631. PMC 4707667. PMID 24854329.

A CNN program that featured Charlotte's Web cannabis in 2013 brought increased attention to the use of CBD in the treatment of seizure disorders.[67][68] Since then, 16 states have passed laws to allow the use of CBD products with a doctor's recommendation (instead of a prescription) for treatment of certain medical conditions.[69] This is in addition to the 30 states that have passed comprehensive medical cannabis laws, which allow for the use of cannabis products with no restrictions on THC content.[69] Of these 30 states, eight have legalized the use and sale of cannabis products without requirement for a doctor's recommendation.[69]
After the Restoration of Independence in 1640, in order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet, were encouraged its cultivation as the Royal Decree of D. John IV in 1656. At that time its cultivation was carried out in Trás-os-Montes, Zone Tower Moncorvo, more precisely in Vilariça Valley, fertile land for any crop irrigation, and a very large area, flat and very fertile culture still wide until the last century grew up tobacco, a plant that needs a large space to expand and grow, the area lies in the valley of Serra de Bornes.[citation needed]
Over millennia, humans have domesticated, developed and cultivated multiple strains of cannabis and used them for a variety of purposes. Today, generally speaking, the two you’ll hear the most about are hemp, which is legally defined as cannabis plants that contain less than 0.3% of the psychoactive THC, and marijuana (strictly speaking, a product rather than a plant type), which has more than 0.3% THC. Many CBD products for dogs are sourced from hemp.
Male hemp plants flower much faster than females and do not produce nearly as much fiber. In stark contrast to marijuana fields, most female hemp fields include sporadically placed males. The male hemp plants release pollen for the female hemp plant to produce seeds that will either be used for future crops or sold as food. In marijuana fields, males are typically eliminated to ensure the maximum production of sensimilla flowers.
The most appropriate delivery system for CBD-rich cannabis is one that provides an optimal dose for a desired duration with as few unwanted side effects as possible. Medical cannabis products with CBD and low- or zero-levels of THC have very few noticeable side effects in pets – the most severe might be drowsiness. In addition, cannabis toxicity as a result of pet consumption of cannabis edibles is nonfatal and causes no known long-term side effects.
I recently have started to experiment with forms of CBD as a “last resort” for my neck pain. I was in 2 car accidents in the past, and I’m a full time hairstylist. I often have trouble sleeping, carrying out a full days work and light exercise. The pain was starting to severely effect how I go about my daily life with years of physical therepy and chiropractic visits nothing was helping.
When seizures in K9s are diagnosed, many vets put them on strong pharmacological medications like potassium bromide or phenobarbital to combat the condition. However, those drugs come with some serious side effects, including damage to their liver and other vital organs, lethargy, confusion, and dizziness, and more. Even with these debilitating side effects, these medications aren’t always effective in treating dog seizures.
If you think that your dog might benefit from CBD oil and it is legal for use in your area, give your vet a call or contact a holistic veterinarian. Although some vets are reluctant to recommend CBD treatment, many more are seeing the undeniable benefits of CBD and will approve its use when appropriate. Make sure to consult with a professional either way, and follow safe dosage administration when giving CBD to dogs.
Forskolin is a common name for the plant extract taken from Coleus forskohli. This has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for an assortment of health conditions and ailments. These health conditions, for which is used are asthma, hypertension, psoriasis, congestive health failure, angina, and eczema. The effects of this medical extract have been used in human and animal clinical studies, and most of the in-vitro technology relies mostly on this extract. It works primarily by stimulating various enzymes in the cyclic AMP of cells. Cyclic AMP is one responsible for the most of the essential cell-regulating compounds there is.
Computers by Design, Inc (CBD) has announced the release of CBD True Data Cybrarian, a Windows front-end interface designed for the needs of libraries it offers administrators a wealth of security features, according to CBD It provides security for public access computers, monitors and reports on patron usage, sets session time limits, and authenticates users CBD reports that True Data Cybrarian system guards against malicious hacks or accidental system modifications, but grants full access to all authorized software It can track over 650,000 programs on every desktop, and each desktop can be individually configured or grouped into specialty contigurations The cost for True Data Cybrarian is $1,295 for an unlimited-user site license.
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And the final nail in industrial hemp’s proverbial coffin: Federal law in the United States prohibits the use of hemp leaves and flowers to make drug products. That said, isolating CBD nullifies these distinctions, rendering its source irrelevant as CBD isolate contains nothing but CBD. In this case, the differences between industrial hemp and whole-plant marijuana are far less significant.

The isolation of CBD was recorded back on 1940 by two independent investigation groups. The group of Adams and colleges successfully isolated it from cannabis 1. At the same time Jacob and Todd successfully isolated the cannabidiol from indian hemp resin 2. But was not until 1963 that Mechoulam and Shyo discovered the chemical structure of the CBD and enlightening the comprehension of the nature of the cannabinoids 3. At the next year 1964 Gaoni and Mechoulam finally elucidated the chemical structure of the main psychoactive compound of cannabis the THC matching the starting point of the modern pharmacology of cannabis 4.

The US Drug Enforcement Administration’s online criminal justice statistics for 2000 (cscmosaic.albany.edu/sourcebook/1995/pdf/t440.pdf) shows the following seizures and eradication of plants of C. sativa: 40,929 outdoor plots (2,597,796 plants), 139,580,728 ditchweed (ruderal plants), 2,361 indoor operations (217,105 plants), for a grand total of 2,814, 903 plants destroyed. Impressively, the species was grown in all 50 states (including outdoor seizures in every state except Wyoming)! It is of course impossible to know exactly how much marijuana is cultivated in the United States, and perhaps only 10% to 20% of the amount grown is seized. The profitability of the illegal crop is indicated by a comparison of the cost of a bushel of corn (roughly $2.50) and a bushel of manicured marijuana (about $70,000; it has been suggested that prices range from $500 a pound, for low-quality marijuana, to more than $5,000 a pound for “boutique” strains like “Northern Lights” and “Afghan Kush”). According to a National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) (mir.drugtext.org/marijuananews/marijuana_ranks_fourth_largest_c.htm) marijuana is at least the fourth most valuable crop in America, outranked only by corn, soybeans, and hay. It was estimated that 8.7 million marijuana plants were harvested in 1997, worth $15.1 billion to growers and $25.2 billion on the retail market (the wholesale value was used to compare marijuana to other cash crops). Marijuana was judged to be the largest revenue producing crop in Alabama, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, and one of the top five cash crops in 29 other states.


In December 2013, Uruguay became the first country to legalize growing, sale and use of cannabis.[231] After a long delay in implementing the retail component of the law, in 2017 sixteen pharmacies were authorized to sell cannabis commercially.[232] On June 19, 2018, the Canadian Senate passed a bill and the Prime Minister announced the effective legalization date as October 17, 2018.[38][233] Canada is the second nation to legalize the drug.[234]
Air-dried stem yields in Ontario have from 1998 and onward ranged from 2.6–14.0 tonnes of dry, retted stalks per hectare (1–5.5 t/ac) at 12% moisture. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8.75 t/ha (3.5 t/ac). Northern Ontario crops averaged 6.1 t/ha (2.5 t/ac) in 1998. Statistic for the European Union for 2008 to 2010 say that the average yield of hemp straw has varied between 6.3 and 7.3 ton per ha.[71][72] Only a part of that is bast fiber. Around one tonne of bast fiber and 2–3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3–4 tonnes of good-quality, dry-retted straw. For an annual yield of this level is it in Ontario recommended to add nitrogen (N):70–110 kg/ha, phosphate (P2O5): up to 80 kg/ha and potash (K2O): 40–90 kg/ha.[73] The average yield of dry hemp stalks in Europe was 6 ton/ha (2.4 ton/ac) in 2001 and 2002.[14]

In the meantime, some physicians are forging ahead — and cashing in. Joe Cohen is a doctor at Holos Health, a medical marijuana clinic in Boulder. I asked him what CBD is good for, and he read me a long list of conditions: pain, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, intestinal cramping, anxiety, psychosis, muscle spasms, hyperactive immune systems, nervous system degeneration, elevated blood sugar and more. He also claimed that CBD has anti-cancer properties and can regenerate brain cells and reduce the brain’s levels of amyloid beta — a kind of protein that’s been linked to Alzheimer’s disease. I asked for references, noting that most of these weren’t listed in the Academies report or a similar review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. “I think you just have to Google search it,” he said. It’s true that a preliminary study found hints that cannabinoids might reduce beta amyloid proteins in human brain cells, but the study was done in cells grown in a lab, not in people. As for cancer, the FDA sent warning letters last year to four companies that were selling products that claimed to “prevent, diagnose, treat or cure” cancer.

1) start with a vape or a tincture or smoking, not edibles or pills. vapes and tinctures and smoking have immediate effect, so you’ll be able to tell how much you are using and whether it has an effect. Try to stick with taking a dose, then waiting to be genuinely mindful of the effect before taking more – this will prevent you from raising your tolerance and will allow you to figure out what the right dose for you is.

More recent studies have focused on the mechanisms behind the schizophrenia–cannabis interaction. Epstein and Kumra (2014) tested the effect of cannabis on executive control of attention and cognitive function by comparing scores on the Attention Network Test among people with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and cannabis use disorder, only EOS, only cannabis use disorder, and controls. They found that the first group in particular had less efficient executive control of attention compared with those who had only EOS. They also found a smaller right caudal anterior cingulate cortex in subjects with EOS and cannabis use disorder. However, it is presently unclear whether this means that the smaller cortex surface leads to deficits in self-regulation and heavy cannabis use or if the direction of causation is in the opposite direction. More recent studies have suggested gene–environment correlation between cannabis use and schizophrenia in that the increased risk of schizophrenia after heavy and consistent cannabis use may be moderated by a shared gene that may explain part of the association (Power et al., 2014).


Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.
There's plenty of anecdotal evidence that CBD helps treat a variety of ailments. People are turning to oils, gummies, and other CBD food and drink products to relax at the end of a long day. Retired NFL players are using CBD to manage physical pain, debilitating headaches, and sleeplessness. Spa clients are even using CBD skin products to fight signs of aging.
Cannabis Ruderalis – Thought to be a cannabis species originating in central Asia, it flowers earlier, is much smaller, and can withstand much harsher climates than either Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa. This species purportedly buds based on age rather than changes in length of daylight, known as auto-flowering. It’s used primarily for food production, such as hemp seeds and hemp seed oil.
“Specialty pulp” is the most important component of the hemp industry of the EU, and is expected to remain its core market for the foreseeable future. The most important specialty pulp products made from hemp are cigarette paper (Fig. 16), bank notes, technical filters, and hygiene products. Other uses include art papers and tea bags. Several of these applications take advantage of hemp’s high tear and wet strength. This is considered to be a highly stable, high-priced niche market in Europe, where hemp has an 87% market share of the “specialty pulp” sector (Karus et al. 2000). In Europe, decortication/refining machines are available that can produce 10 t/hour of hemp fiber suitable for such pulp use. North American capacity for hemp pulp production and value-added processing is much more limited than that of Europe, and this industry is negligible in North America.
We have been using cannabis oil with a 1:1 CBD/THC ratio from “AnnCannMed” in treating my husband with pancreatic cancer with a lot of improvement since 4 weeks and the product is working in a miraculous way beyond our expectations. The medication is working with super proof. We recommend you visit AnnCannMed for your health prescriptions and medical purchases and feel support talking to licensed physicians
Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating material for construction. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame.[28] However, hemp fibres are extremely strong and durable, and have been shown to be usable as a replacement for wood for many jobs, including creating very durable and breathable homes. The most common use of hemp lime in building is by casting the hemp and lime mix while wet around a timber frame with temporary shuttering, and tamping the mix to form a firm mass; after the removal of the temporary shuttering, the solidified hemp mix is then ready to be plastered with a lime plaster.[29]
“The political implications of that scheduling, from a research perspective, are limiting,” explains Sutton. “To my knowledge, of the thousands of academic and research bodies in the United States and Canada whom would be equipped to perform agricultural or medical research on this unique species, only around 40 have actual research licenses to study the plant in a limited context.”
Best pain medication – EVER! Bought your products from an Expo. I have extreme knee pain walking up and down stairs. I like the cream better than the skin oil. Relief is almost immediate. I thanked God for such a miracle, then I got mad as hell that our government has banned this for so long. Ridiculous!!!! Thank you for making this product. I walked 17 miles recently, as if I was 21 again.
In the United States, the legality of medical marijuana varies in substantial ways from state to state. There are currently 29 US states with legal medical cannabis laws, as well as the District of Columbia. That leaves 21 states where medical marijuana is entirely prohibited. Marijuana cultivation, possession, and use in any form is illegal at the federal level.
Hi…I read your statement about hemp being a cream that takes pain away. Living in Oregon there’s no talk about “hemp” but I don’t doubt your experience with it..and I’m wondering where you found it..so that maybe I can get a jar of it and see if it would help my aches and pains….I would really appreciate your response…and thanks for your “reply” that motivated me to write to you..
Male hemp plants flower much faster than females and do not produce nearly as much fiber. In stark contrast to marijuana fields, most female hemp fields include sporadically placed males. The male hemp plants release pollen for the female hemp plant to produce seeds that will either be used for future crops or sold as food. In marijuana fields, males are typically eliminated to ensure the maximum production of sensimilla flowers.
Cooper recently got funding from the National Institutes of Health for a study looking at cannabinoids — including CBD in isolation — as a substitute for opioids, and numerous other clinical trials of CBD are underway. It will be several years before results are available, but these studies should help clarify both what benefits the substance may provide and any side effects it may come with. Most of the adverse effects so far associated with cannabis, such as impairments in short-term memory, coordination and judgment,2 come from products that contain THC as well as CBD, Cooper said, but we need to do more studies to find out for sure whether CBD has fewer risks. Studies are also needed to identify the best way to administer and dose CBD. “I get emails from people asking me what dose of CBD to use, and the truth is, we really don’t know,” Cooper said.
Arthritis is a disease of the joints that comes in many different forms and can cause mild discomfort to extreme pain. Typical symptoms include swelling, stiffness, and decreased range of motion. Just as it can be very discomforting or painful for us, arthritis also affects our dogs, especially as they get older. CBD works with the Vanilloid receptor to help reduce swelling and stiffness caused by inflammation while mediating your dog’s perception of pain.  This allows CBD to effectively combat arthritis, and keep your pup moving around happy and pain-free!
Last year, the Hemp Industries Association (HIA) estimated the total retail value of all hemp products sold in the U.S. at $620 million. Sadly, all of the raw hemp materials were imported from other countries. (More on that later.) Hemp is an attractive rotation crop for farmers. As it grows, hemp breathes in CO2, detoxifies the soil, and prevents soil erosion. What’s left after harvest breaks down into the soil, providing valuable nutrients.

Plastic composites for automobiles are the second most important component of the hemp industry of the EU. Natural fibers in automobile composites are used primarily in press-molded parts (Fig. 18). There are two widespread technologies. In thermoplastic production, natural fibers are blended with polypropylene fibers and formed into a mat, which is pressed under heat into the desired form. In thermoset production the natural fibers are soaked with binders such as epoxy resin or polyurethane, placed in the desired form, and allowed to harden through polymerization. Hemp has also been used in other types of thermoplastic applications, including injection molding. The characteristics of hemp fibers have proven to be superior for production of molded composites. In European manufacturing of cars, natural fibers are used to reinforce door panels, passenger rear decks, trunk linings, and pillars. In 1999 over 20,000 t of natural fiber were used for these purposes in Europe, including about, 2,000 t of hemp. It has been estimated that 5–10 kg of natural fibers can be used in the molded portions of an average automobile (excluding upholstery). The demand for automobile applications of hemp is expected to increase considerably, depending on the development of new technologies (Karus et al. 2000).
For our review of the best CBD topicals available online, we focused only on companies which make third-party, independent lab results available to consumers. Lab results are available online, included in the order, or on request. It’s vitally important that consumers know exactly what products they’re consuming: how strong it is, and whether it has any impurities. We also focused on brands with fast, friendly customer service and easy to use websites.
Hemp is plagued by bird predation, which take a heavy toll on seed production. The seeds are well known to provide extremely nutritious food for both wild birds and domestic fowl. Hunters and birdwatchers who discover wild patches of hemp often keep this information secret, knowing that the area will be a magnet for birds in the fall when seed maturation occurs. Increasingly in North America, plants are being established to provide habitat and food for wildlife. Hemp is not an aggressive weed, and certainly has great potential for being used as a wildlife plant. Of course, current conditions forbid such usage in North America.

Hemp is plagued by bird predation, which take a heavy toll on seed production. The seeds are well known to provide extremely nutritious food for both wild birds and domestic fowl. Hunters and birdwatchers who discover wild patches of hemp often keep this information secret, knowing that the area will be a magnet for birds in the fall when seed maturation occurs. Increasingly in North America, plants are being established to provide habitat and food for wildlife. Hemp is not an aggressive weed, and certainly has great potential for being used as a wildlife plant. Of course, current conditions forbid such usage in North America.

Scientists in Europe and North America concluded that hemp seed is an excellent source of nutrition. Numerous anecdotal incidences cited improvements in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions such as rapid healing of skin lesions and relief from flu, inflammation, and allergies. The benefits were attributed to the presence of rich source of the EFAs linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, and their respective biologic metabolites, GLA and stearidonic acid.9
Wikidata: Q79817 Wikispecies: Cannabis APDB: 189080 APNI: 106875 BioLib: 3465 EoL: 72695 EPPO: 1CNIG FloraBase: 22595 FNA: 105522 FoC: 105522 GBIF: 2984538 GRIN: 2034 iNaturalist: 72032 IPNI: 40737-1 IRMNG: 1280947 ITIS: 19108 NBN: NHMSYS0000456774 NCBI: 3482 NZOR: 5344e3b5-4049-474a-ac38-eb23ffc8f216 PLANTS: CANNA POWO: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:30204649-2 Tropicos: 40000735 uBio: 4894539 VASCAN: 945

Ingredients: Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil, Stearic Acid (Vegetable Derived), Cetyl Alcohol (Coconut Alcohol), Sodium Hydroxide (non-GMO, mineral-salt), Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Seed Extract, Aloe barbadensis Leaf Juice, Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), Glycerin (non-GMO, vegetable-derived), Potassium Sorbate (non-GMO, mineral-salt), Xanthan Gum (non-GMO, vegetable-derived), Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil*, Menthol (Mentha arvensis), Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil*, Ocimum basilicum (Basil) Leaf Oil*, Citrus aurantium bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil*, Whole Hemp Derived CBD Isolate, Montana (Arnica) Flower Oil, Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil, Zingiber officinale (Ginger) Root Oil*, Citrus medica limonum (Lemon) Peel Oil*, Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) Peel Oil*, Citrus aurantium dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil*, Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract, Salvia sclarea (Clary) Oil*, Phenoxyethanol
I was originally prescribed this as part of my protocol to help with my Hashimoto’s, but I find it to be awesome for joint and muscle pain from injury as well. It is great for dry skin, too, shea butter is so soothing. I especially appreciate the ingredients – no preservatives, or fragrance chemicals, just good simple stuff. Keep up the good work and thank you!
The cultivation of hemp in the EU is heavily weighted toward fiber production over oilseed production. In 1999, the EU produced about 27,000 t of hemp fiber, but only about 6,200 t of hemp seeds, mostly in France, and 90% of this was used as animal feed (Karus et al. 2000). The seeds (Fig. 33) have traditionally been employed as bird and poultry feed, but feeding the entire seeds to livestock has been considered to be a poor investment because of the high cost involved (although subsidization in Europe allows such usage, especially in France where hemp seeds are not legally permitted in human food). As pointed out later, higher yield and better harvesting practices may make whole hempseed an economical livestock feed. Moreover, seed cake left after expressing the oil is an excellent feed. Efforts are underway in Europe to add value in the form of processed products for hemp, especially cosmetics and food but, as noted below, the North American market is already quite advanced in oilseed applications.
From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's largest producer of hemp (3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine,[87] the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia, and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.[88][89]
Cannabis has mental and physical effects, such as creating a "high" or "stoned" feeling, a general change in perception, heightened mood, and an increase in appetite.[21][22] Onset of effects is within minutes when smoked, and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and eaten.[21][23] They last for between two and six hours.[23] Short-term side effects may include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills, red eyes, and feelings of paranoia or anxiety.[21][24][25] Long-term side effects may include addiction, decreased mental ability in those who started as teenagers, and behavioral problems in children whose mothers used cannabis during pregnancy.[21] There is a strong relation between cannabis use and the risk of psychosis,[26] though the cause-and-effect is debated.[27]
There is certainly a need to utilize available germplasm sources in order to breed suitable cultivars for North America. A list of the 24 approved cultivars for the 2001 season in Canada is at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb-dgps/therapeut/htmleng/hemp.html. Most of these are regulated by the European Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These cultivars are “approved” for use in Canada not on agricultural criteria, but merely on the basis that they meet the THC criterion. Indeed, most of these are unsuitable or only marginally suitable for Canada (Small and Marcus 2000), and only a very few Canadian cultivars to date have been created. In Canada, every acquisition of hemp grown at a particular place and time must be tested for THC content by an independent laboratory and, under the industrial hemp regulations, fields of hemp with more than 0.3% THC may require destruction (a slight degree of flexibility is generally exercised). Importation of experimental hemp lines (i.e. other than the approved cultivars) requires importation licenses (as well as phytosanitary clearance of the shipment by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency), and the importation licenses require an indication that the THC contents are low.
Unfortunately, because this is a supplement we're not allowed to make medical claims regarding its use as a treatment or cure. However, this is the exact reason we began using this product on our own pets. (Our founding pets were diagnosed with cancer; one was 16 and the other was 8.) We used phytocannabinoidas palliative care for appetite and pain management.
^ Jump up to: a b Schreiner AM, Dunn ME (October 2012). "Residual effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive performance after prolonged abstinence: a meta-analysis". Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 20 (5): 420–429. doi:10.1037/a0029117. PMID 22731735. Therefore, results indicate evidence for small neurocognitive effects that persist after the period of acute intoxication...As hypothesized, the meta-analysis conducted on studies eval- uating users after at least 25 days of abstention found no residual effects on cognitive performance...These results fail to support the idea that heavy cannabis use may result in long-term, persistent effects on neuropsychological functioning.
Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species.[39] Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors.[27] Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects.[15] It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis using chemical treatment.[40] A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.[41]
However, Bonn-Miller told Live Science that he thinks cannabis research is on the upswing. "If we flash forward five years I think you'll see more studies," he said. Those studies could reveal more conditions that CBD may be helpful for and may also reveal that some of the reasons why people say they use CBD oil are not supported by the science but are instead a placebo effect. "And that's why we need to do the studies," he said.  
Cannabis is indigenous to Central Asia[192] and the Indian subcontinent,[193] and its use for fabric and rope dates back to the Neolithic age in China and Japan.[194][195] It is unclear when cannabis first became known for its psychoactive properties; some scholars suggest that the ancient Indian drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas, was cannabis, although this theory is disputed.[196]
Hemp has at times in the past been grown simply for its ornamental value. The short, strongly-branched cultivar ‘Panorama’ (Fig. 43) bred by Iván Bósca, the dean of the world’s living hemp breeders, was commercialized in Hungary in the 1980s, and has been said to be the only ornamental hemp cultivar available. It has had limited success, of course, because there are very few circumstances that permit private gardeners can grow Cannabis as an ornamental today. By contrast, beautiful ornamental cultivars of opium poppy are widely cultivated in home gardens across North America, despite their absolute illegality and the potentially draconian penalties that could be imposed. Doubtless in the unlikely event that it became possible, many would grow hemp as an ornamental.
A wealth of marketing material, blogs and anecdotes claim that cannabis oils can cure whatever ails you, even cancer. But the limited research doesn't suggest that cannabis oil should take the place of conventional medication, except for in two very rare forms of epilepsy (and even then, it's recommended only as a last-resort treatment). And, experts caution that because cannabis oil and other cannabis-based products are not regulated or tested for safety by the government or any third-party agency, it's difficult for consumers to know exactly what they're getting.

We now understand that inflammation is so toxic to your systems That’s why it’s so pivotal that this therapeutic substance has been found to reduce the production of inflammatory substances in your body, which can cause autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivity, or allergies, and it can even reduce chronic inflammation in animals. Furthermore, many vets are recommending CBD oil for dogs with seizures.


While research into the effects of CBD on specific conditions is important, a broader perspective on the relationship between CBD and the human body is necessary to understand how this unique compound works. Interestingly, many of the conditions that are supposedly helped by CBD have no well-understood cause, from acne to Alzheimer’s disease. However, one of the few common denominators between these conditions is the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in their causes.
Hemp does best on a loose, well-aerated loam soil with high fertility and abundant organic matter. Well-drained clay soils can be used, but poorly-drained clay soils are very inappropriate because of their susceptibility to compaction, which is not tolerated. Young plants are sensitive to wet or flooded soils, so that hemp must have porous, friable, well-drained soils. Sandy soils will grow good hemp, provided that adequate irrigation and fertilization are provided, but doing so generally makes production uneconomical. Seedbed preparation requires considerable effort. Fall plowing is recommended, followed by careful preparation of a seedbed in the spring. The seedbed should be fine, level, and firm. Seed is best planted at 2–3 cm (twice as deep will be tolerated). Although the seedlings will germinate and survive at temperatures just above freezing, soil temperatures of 8°–10°C are preferable. Generally hemp should be planted after danger of hard freezes, and slightly before the planting date of maize. Good soil moisture is necessary for seed germination, and plenty of rainfall is needed for good growth, especially during the first 6 weeks. Seeding rate is specific to each variety, and this information should be sought from the supplier. Fiber strains are typically sown at a minimum rate of 250 seeds per m2 (approximately 45 kg/ha), and up to three times this density is sometimes recommended. In western Europe, seeding rates range from 60–70 kg/ha for fiber cultivars. Recommendations for seeding rates for grain production vary widely, from 10–45 kg/ha. Densities for seed production for tall, European, dual-purpose cultivars are less than for short oilseed cultivars. Low plant densities, as commonly found in growing tall European cultivars for seed, may not suppress weed growth adequately, and under these circumstances resort to herbicides may pose a problem for those wishing to grow hempseed organically. Hemp requires about the same fertility as a high-yielding crop of wheat. Industrial hemp grows well in areas that corn produces high yields. Growing hemp may require addition of up to 110 kg/ha of nitrogen, and 40–90 kg/ha of potash. Hemp particularly requires good nitrogen fertilization, more so for seed production than fiber. Adding nitrogen when it is not necessary is deleterious to fiber production, so that knowledge of the fertility of soils being used is very important. Organic matter is preferably over 3.5%, phosphorus should be medium to high (>40 ppm), potassium should be medium to high (>250 ppm), sulfur good (>5,000 ppm), and calcium not in excess (<6,000 ppm).
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